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Copyright © 2012 Ray Dickenson
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Westward Ho!

  Indus-Valley   |   Old-Silk Road   |   Yü-chi   |   Language   |   Mystery  
  Meso-America   |   Anomalies?   |   Dis-Aster!   |   Tree-Rings   |   Megaliths   |   Sumer-Babylon   |   Ancient Egypt   |   Solon of Athens   |   China  
  Western-Impact?   |  Myths   |   Mythos   |   Earlier-Ages?   |   Epilogue  

We ask :-

1) Did peoples, cultures, languages and ideas migrate predominantly westward around the world in prehistoric and historic times?

2) Is there a probable physical cause for such a westward movement?

3) Given that the cause could be a natural one, and that humans might have existed as civilized beings for much longer than the academics think, is our real social history richer and more complex than the text books say?

4) Can we find reasons for losses  ref-01 of history, technology and advanced knowledge?

There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy. Hamlet


Modern `scientists'  ref-02 & `historians' have long been telling us that human `civilization' only began about 5 (or maybe 6) thousand years ago - in the farming villages of Sumer - later Babylonia  ref-03- and Persia.

Have learned to be dubious of `experts' of all kinds, so glad to see some of our (and others') predictions coming up within a lifetime.

It seems an ancient, sophisticated and monumental city - whose latest inhabitants' bones are over 9,500 years old - has been found under-sea off the western coast of India, in the Gulf of Cambay, Gujarat - maps etc at report #1report #2, pictures of artifacts, update
Other under-sea Sites

Koutroulou Magoula, Greece:-
Recent excavations of this `town' dates it to to c. 7,300 to 7,800 years old.  Archeologists find "no evidence of a central authority".
I.e. - no palaces, no barracks, no prisons, no slave quarters, BUT equally good-quality housing for all.

Indus Valley Civilization :- (Indus - Sarasvati Valleys)
A high civilization existed from 7,000 - 8,000 years ago (or earlier - see update), in a broad belt of what is now eastern Pakistan and north-western India.  That is, its towns and cities follow the lines of the Indus and the ancient Sarasvati river valleys, running south-west from the Himalayas to the coast of the Arabian Sea.  Remains of hundreds of towns have been discovered.

UPDATE Sept. 2016: The true age of the Indus Valley Civilization seems to be confirmed as 8000+ years (article - text version).

N.b - A mention of the Sarasvati River, in the most ancient verses of the Rig Veda, states it was a `mighty River flowing powerfully from the Mountains (Himalayas) to the Ocean (Arabian Sea)'.  Modern satellite imaging and geological research has shown that course and full-flow (image) only existed between approximately 8,000 BCE to 6,000 BCE.

This raises the intriguing possibility that the Indus Valley civilization, or their ancestors, perhaps from the area between the Karakoram and Himalayan Ranges (said to be the `Home of Wisdom'), were the originators of proto-Indo-European languages and the transmitters of agriculture to the Western world.

Note: that area's conveniently close to Samarkand / Khotan and those traces of the `Tocharians' (see below).

Like Egypt, (below) which began with high quality architecture and then degenerated, the Indus Valley civilization seemed to begin `at a peak' [they invented decimal counting - many milllenia ahead of the West, and their systems of survey, weights and measures, compared to the rest of the ancient world, were extremely advanced].

However, unlike later `civilizations', including today's, the Indus valley towns and cities were egalitarian - all citizens had similar good-quality housing, water supply and drainage, to a higher standard than the area has seen since - much better than today's in most areas.

As further proof of `equality', there are no traces of palaces, temples, barracks or prisons, and no sign of slavery - see Wiki entry.

"It is most extraordinary that in 80 years of excavation in the Indus Valley no solid evidence of militarism has turned up, either in the building or the art (including the seal imagery).  The contrast with the ancient Middle East, Egypt, Greece, Central America and China, is stark.  Maybe - many archaeologists cannot help but wonder - the Indus Valley dwellers were the spiritual forebears of the non-violent tradition epitomized in modern times by Mahatma Gandhi, who was born in the region."
`Lost Languages' by Andrew Robinson (2002)

No wonder the Indus Valley civilization seems to be down-played by our modern academics - maybe under instructions from our murderous, greedy and corrupt ruling elites.

Update 18 Sept 2010 - Just found - a link between both these sites - a "Great Goddess" religious icon.

Çatalhöyük, Turkey:-
Interestingly, the archeological excavations of this `city' - up to 9,500 years old at lowest levels - also show the people led egalitarian lives (wiki) "with no apparent social classes".

Once again - no kings, no priests, no soldiers, no slaves!

You can probably understand why both sets of findings are down-played - suppressed: not taught in schools ref-03a - even now. ref-03b  &  ref-03c

Göbekli Tepe, Urfa, S-E Turkey:-
Most recent and most ancient discovery, it is now dated at about 11,000 to 13,000 years old.  The hill-top structures form a group of large `chambers' (picture) and was apparently a `meeting place' for hunter / gatherer folk from a wide area. [wiki]
(Relatively nearby, just over the present Syrian border, Tell Qaramel (Wiki ref.) has also been dated to 11,000 to 13,000 years old and is assumed to be the work of the same civilization as Göbekli Tepe's.]

Such pre-agricultural groups would be non-hierarchical  (slavery only became viable - in some areas - after the invention of farming)  which probably explains why their interests, seen in the decorations of Göbekli Tepe, seem to have been various aspects of wild life and natural phenomena.

Some indications of origins - for crops and livestock:  "late Mesolithic sheep of southern France ... must be traced to south-western Asia"  and "the essential basis of European agriculture - cereals - was an imported one". and  "There can be little doubt that the principal plant domesticates and some of the animals too came ... from Anatolia".  [Anatolia - Turkey wiki]
Archeology & Language - The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins Colin Renfrew -1998, Pimlico, ISBN 0-7126-6612-5

UPDATE Nov. 2010 - `Ancient DNA Indicates Farmers Spread West' (text)

There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy. Hamlet

Language - Writing - Civilization

The `experts' claim that humans before about 3000 BCE were illiterate.  So they couldn't have high civilization - such as planning, building and running centrally designed cities, of the monumental type?

QUOTE - The earliest Egyptian writing dates from 3100 BCE, that of the Indus Valley [supposedly] from 2500 BCE, that of Crete from 1750 BCE, that of China [supposedly] from 1200 BCE - UNQUOTE from `Lost Languages' by Andrew Robinson, 2002, CN 106839

Check again - above

UPDATE - May 2007 - `Chinese writing '8,000 years old'

UPDATE - Aug 2010 - `Vinca "writing" '7,300 years old'

These seemingly opposed facts could be resolved if we allow a possibility:- that catastrophe(s) wiped out civilization(s) in the past, destroying infrastructure and learning, especially `ephemera' - like this page, which exists only as electron `bits' - unless you've printed it - that carry most current info in a high civilization.

Some items in this page could be arguments for that hypothesis.


Old Silk Road

The Old Silk Road

This ancient trade route runs East - West, joining China to the Mediterranean coast.

So from Tyre / Antioch the Road heads eastward, clipping the south of Caspian Sea to skirt the Great Salt Desert, then easting again through Samarkand, Yarkand & Khotan, going north or south around the Takla Makan Desert and veering south of the Gobi Desert, to Lanchou / Sian - central entrance to the Chinese Empire.

Scarce rivers and waterholes in serious desert uplands dictated where the traders could travel.  As you see, in the drier regions there were northern routes and southern routes - probably depending on seasons.

VIDEO - Colin Renfrew presents some more controversy about the `Ancient Silk Road - Before Silk'

`Old Silk Road' research and collections are being collated for the web.  Chinese gov't site at & `English version' - also maybe try Apr 2007 - China plans re-opening of Old Silk Road.

Around Khotan and to the East there once lived a tribe (or small nation) whom the Chinese - in whose empire they lived - referred to as the Yü-chi.

Interestingly they were on the least productive  ref-04 margins of the Chinese Empire.

This nation, or tribe, were probably pastoralist nomads, first using cattle and carts, then chariots.  Eventually by 2000 - 2300 years ago, according to the records of the Chinese Empire, they had all finally departed - westward.

The `Yü-chi' were not Chinese.  Amazingly they spoke a proto 'Indo-European' language.  Here is their basic number set:-

1- se, 2- wu, 3- trai, 4- stwer, 5- pis, 6- skas, 7- sukt, 8- okt, 9- nu, 10- sak, 100- kante

This is amazing because it is closer to modern English, French and Italian say, than were the languages now found around that desert area.  Academics, for various reasons, have dubbed the `Yü-chi's' language as `Tocharian'.  But that's probably a misnomer.

Some `Tocharian' websites -




Although the academics are still wrangling over the importance of `Tocharian', it appears to us that the `Yü-chi' could have been at least a part of the seed from which sprang the lively linguistic tree known as the 'Indo-European language group'.

For instance, at least one academic estimated that `Indo-European influences from the East have been felt in central and western Europe from around 6000 BCE'.

Remembering that the Chinese seemed to have early use of domesticated animals and cereal plants, we can surmise the Yü-chi, and maybe their descendants, were active in moving technologies of husbandry into western Eur-Asia, along with their language roots.

UPDATE 2013 - "Cattle Farming Prevalent in China 10,000 Years Ago" - [text version]

[Although it seems the Chinese had their own `Dark Age'  ref-05 - a loss of science and culture which looks to have happened before 2,000 BCE.  They recovered much technology but were left with significant unexplained "magic" from before that mysterious collapse.]

For instance, the stirrup and other `horse-technology' came from China, which probably had the first heavy cavalry (use of weapons like lances and sabres is hardly possible without stirrups and reins - you fall off).

UPDATES '06 - re: the Yü-chi

1) - The mystery of China's celtic mummies  ref-06
"They seem to have been a peaceful folk, as there are few weapons among the Cherchen find and there is little evidence of a caste system"

2) - Mystery of the mummies  ref-07
"According to sweeping physical evidence, they were not Chinese. They were not even Asian.  They were Caucasian."

- Germanic, Celtic (Keltik), Greek and Latinic languages
and all their derivatives

English grew - quite recently in fact - from Welsh Celtic, Germanic, Greco Latinic and even older sources.

Its various roots can be seen by:-

bogey = Welsh Celtic - "bwg" - ghost, & Slavic - "bug" spirit or god (also `boggart' `bugbear' `puck' in Irish & English)

dad = Welsh Celtic - father

super = Latinic - from Sanskrit Sanskrit - suh - "suh" - good, most, extra-fine; see superb (ENG), supremo(ITAL & ESP) sumo (ESP) etc.

path = proto-IndoEuro & Sanskrit Sanskrit - path - "path" or "patha" - track, route, option, choice (or destiny) or career

"Patha" - first letter is P (which includes a short, unwritten A), the second letter is the TH sound.  They hang from a common bar - to denote one word

Those two root-words can be joined in Sanskrit, giving "suh-patha" = the right path

The shapes of many modern `Roman' letters can be seen in Sanskrit scripts.  For instance, that "P" is reversed, and that combination "t + h" was made by putting the "t" in the top-left-hand corner of a large rounded "h"

Many strong consonants include an unwritten short "a" following, which had to be written in if consonant was absent, or, if unwanted, written out by a cancelling mark or 'tail'

saint = Sanskrit "sant" - virtuous / devout

daughter = Sanskrit "duhitr"

and many other correlations.


Evolution works!

It seems the big change came when Indo-Euros (proto-Greeks) in East Med. came into close contact with Semites in Phoenicia & Egyptian Sinai - and both sides traded.
Result - modern `alphabetic' written languages developed in both cultures

The hypothesis - outlined in `Reading the Past 1990 British Museum - says that Sinai-based Semites / Phoenicians took Egyptian `hieroglyphs' and allotted them to first letters of Semitic (proto-Arabic/ Hebrew) words.

The results were used as a proto-alphabet, which was then used by the Greeks (until then using `pictographs' like the Egyptians).

As shown, this new Greek `alphabet' was then used by the Romans and by all later European scripts, including Russian Cyrillic.


"Egyptian - Protosinaitic - Phoenician - Early Greek - Greek - Latin"
from `Reading the Past' 1990 British Museum



Above - `Family Tree' of Indo-Euro languages

from Minna Sundberg

These proto-languages and scripts moved throughout most of Europe

And from there to all the Americas.

Ages of World's Writing

ages of world scripts

From - "Lost Languages - The Enigma of the World's Undeciphered Scripts" 2002 by Andrew Robinson

Beware - some dates controversial and changing even now

Evolution proven by Language?  ref-01

Travelling phrases

Several hundred years ago a strange phrase was being used in England to denote people in a distressed state.  The phrase - 'raggle taggle' - didn't seem to have any English roots

An Egyptian today could still use `raagil ta'aban' - "a fatigued person" to describe someone in a distressed state (i.e ragged, tired or even drunk).


An undeciphered language?

Quoted from - `Reading The Past' Larissa Bonfante, John Chadwick, B.F. Cook, W.V. Davies, John F. Healey, C.B.F Walker, GUILD PUBLISHING / BRITISH MUSEUM PUBLICATIONS 1990 CN 9502

This thing below is called the `Phaistos Disk' and it's a unique example of a lost language.

It's a 'one-off' - nobody's able to decipher it ... Make sense of it - you could be famous.

Experts reckon `words' start at dotted line - bottom: by crested human head - going clock-wise around the rim - then spiral to center.

But they could go other way, outwards to the rim

It's about 6.5 inches (160mm) wide, half an inch (12mm) thick.

Phaistos disk

It was found near Phaistos, in Southern Crete - Eastern Mediterranean, already made famous by its Minoan [Linear B. see below] excavations & discoveries, but those experts think it came from somewhere else originally.

Oh, and by the way, the symbols were apparently stamped, from a pattern or 'die', not carved freehand.  That's quite an investment in time and trouble to produce an `ornament'.

So you might want to think about the purpose and use of the artifact- was it 'official' or 'religious' or indeed, magic'?  Which of those might demand a reproducible, plate, seal or badge?

Oh, and another message on the reverse.
Here's the two images - "front" and "back" [go RTCLICK "Open Image in new tab" or download to zoom]

front       back

So below there are examples of ancient scripts from all around the area from the Mediterranean to Persia - just to give us some comparisons.

1) First - The three stages of CUNEIFORM - this was used over a wide area from Lebanon to Babylonia.


2) Second - coming clockwise to Egypt and its hieroglyphs.


3) Lastly coming back to the Mediterranean - Linear B.


So - the Mystery of Phaistos Disk's all yours!


Further phenomena and speculation about the Americas

`Cataclysms' hit the Earth around 2200 BCE, 1600 BCE, 1100 BCE & 200 BCE
Evidence says the events caused massive starve-outs:  entire `nations' migrating, causing stresses and wars.
Quakes & tsunamis destroyed cities, trade and shipping, sweeping people and ships (or whole fleets) into the unknown.

A `cataclysm' hit the Mediterranean (most likely the eruption of Santorini c. 1623 BCE ref-1a).  The south European coasts, particularly Greece and the Aegean islands and Egypt and North Africa were severely affected.  Which maybe caused lost ships or fleets, and/or desertion (from Egyptian/African armies) and whole-sale migration of armed groups of African troops.

We think those Africans landed, eventually, on the southern coast of the Gulf of Mexico (west of the Yucatan), making that area their power-base and spreading their influence for several hundred years.

Evidence for such voyages is at which quotes - "Archaeologists speculate that such an incredible sea voyage, [from Australia to Brazil], would not have been undertaken knowingly but by accident.  Just three years ago, five African fishermen were caught in a storm and a few weeks later were washed up on the shores of South America.  Two of the fishermen died, but three made it alive"

The new African `kings' of the local indigenous people (who historians have mistakenly named `Olmecs') seem to have imparted some Egyptian themes and concepts for use in an early writing system, which then developed its own characteristics.

African (Olmec)     African? Olmec head     African? Olmec head

Those ancient carved heads (each weighing up to 20 tons) show the prestige given - by Central & South American prehistoric peoples - to arriving warriors from Africa who may have begun the series of cultures of the Long Count.  ref-08

The carved heads of basalt seem to indicate that the leaders (at least) came from a history of hot equatorial evolution.

We speculate that the Olmecs (or Xi People? - video) came westwards from Africa and further, that intermittent arrivals from Africa, and maybe Egypt, were significant in Central & South American prehistory.

The Olmec might have been the African Vikings of their time, and certainly passed on their cultural inheritance - see doomsday

note: Vikings  ref-15 have also been maligned by self-interested historians ref-16: they were warriors but also navigating explorers, ref-17, democratic ref-18 traders ref-19 and settlers.  I.e. not tyrannical enslavers & empire builders like the Greeks, Romans and many others since. ref-20 & ref-21.

note2: Roman records said "the Africans are good astrologers" [Westmarck E - 1926].  Astrology was closely associated with astronomy, mathematics & navigation.

A second or third `cataclysm' (c. 1200 - 1100 BCE) also badly affected the eastern Mediterranean and further north into the Balkans and EurAsia.  Results in history were massive migrations into south-east Europe, Anatolia, and Greece, causing huge disruptions, wars and genocides.  Almost certainly the Greek `Dark Ages' ref-1a were another result.

Gathering evidence seems to show later arrivals, to the eastern coast of Yucatan peninsula, of armed groups from Africa, Aegean, south-east Europe, Egypt or even Mesopotamia.

It's worth noting that, if most were swept-away or escaping or defecting military, then those groups would probably be male-only;  therefore distinctive traits would be more or less swallowed-up after a generation or so of mating with local females.

Here's some basic data:- i) astronomy records of Meso-Americans show they - the mixed groups who finalized as the `Maya' - were most interested in forecasting sightings of Venus, and to a lesser extent Mars, exactly as were earlier Babylonian astronomers;
ii) the number system from Olmecs onward were based on 10s and 20s (2 hands) but later a 60s `base' was introduced - just like the Sumerians / Babylonians had;
iii) Europeans from the Balkans and north & east, were pyramid builders (observatories?  ref-10) and also embalmed or mummified their dead;
iv) both Egypt and Mesoamerican empires used same N-S `good-bad' orientation; ref-10A
v) further west, the Canary Islands were said by Pliny to be uninhabited  ref-11 in 600 BCE but already had `huge buildings';
vi) Later the Guanches,  ref-12 a tall, blond Caucasian group populated the Canaries, kept the pyramids and mummified their dead;
vii) further west, the Olmecs (N Africans?) began the Meso-American `civilizations' (Olmec - Maya - Toltec - Mixtec - Aztec somewhat mingled  ref-13), to be followed by the last wave of `potato-head' Maya rulers (only?  ref-14) - but all built pyramids;
viii) The `wave' of migrants might have continued through a meso-american gap - the practise of embalming and mummifying traveled onwards to Polynesia.

While some of this seems to be happening after the last Ice Age, there are possibilities that the process was begun much earlier.

Update 18 Sept 2010 - Just found: yet another link between Egypt and the Americas.

ix) Images from carvings becoming available seem to show several `European type' faces among the waves of arrivals lumped together by historians as `Toltec', `Aztec', `Maya' etc and then `classical Maya'.

Here's a few ranging from a decapitated Mayan lord (from here), through three later kings or rulers (notice changing physiognomy), ending with an obvious Foreigner - with Euro-Asian or N African headgear and beard, neither expected in Meso-America.

Be-headed Maya lord         Maya ruler     La Mojarra Stele     Maya king     a foreigner in Maya country

Moche jarLater note: looking at carvings, paintings and ceramic `portrait jars' (esp. Moche stuff) you find realistic depictions of various ethnic groups - including this rather gruesome Caucasian-type head:
See Moche ceramics of Northern Peru

Human habitation of the Pacific islands (now said to be some 2,000 to 4.000 years old) was initiated and carried out in a westerly direction, i.e. from the direction of South or Central America, perhaps earlier than claimed.

Possibly in part by descendants of the African traders / explorers noted above.  It may be there was then a sea-passage between North and South America.

See New Scientist 20 June 1996 "The elephants swam in two by two"
[How paleontologists have recently discovered an ancestor of the elephant, living in North America more than 10,000,000 years ago, had swam across the wide sea gap to populate South America.  That sea gap apparently continued to exist for a further several million years, effectively preventing migration by other animals who were non-swimmers]

Westward from Central America, we find Easter Island's rock art (birdman) & Olmec's (snake man) seem more alike than either resemble art of Polynesians, who later populated the island.

`bird-man' of Easter Island         Olmec `snake-man'

Archeological and linguistic studies (saying settlement came from the opposite direction - from S.Asia) have been misreading the evidence due to preconceived socio-historical notions.

[Note: most studies were either based on language and domestic artifacts, cultural phenomena which can travel against the current of human migration, or on mitochondrial DNA (mDNA), a record of the female line and so can also travel against the current of male-only expeditions.

Analysis of mDNA is anyway notoriously prone to bias.  ref-22 During the analysis the operator virtually tells the program which answer he/she wants.]

Plus - existence of sweet potato in Polynesia.  Botanists know that the sweet potato originally came from South America.  See "Enigma of the Sweet Potato"ref-23

Plus - South American Cotton - Hybrid of African Cotton and New World Cotton.  ref-24

2005 - SoCal Chumash Indians linked with Hawaiians.  ref-25

2013 - DNA links indigenous folk in eastern Brazil to Polynesia / Madagascarref-25A

2013 - Humans in South America 22,000 years agoref-25B

Proto-European groups may have visited mainland North America in pre-historic times, probably before the last Ice Age.

Of the five ancient mitochondrial DNA (mDNA) lineages found in Native Americans (Amerindians) the first four: A, B, C, D, are of Asian origin but the fifth: lineage X, which is also found, is of exclusively European origin.

And that this X lineage has left no trace in Asia - even though the Europeans, if they had crossed Asia to get to America, would surely have mated with Asians in the estimated 1,000 years they would have needed for a `drift' transit! [this particular conundrum reviewed at "Athena" page here]

Therefore that ancient European element found in Native Americans arrived traveling westwards across the Atlantic, and maybe even more than 23,000 years ago (previous window of opportunity before the last Ice Age - see migration.  ref-26)

Later - it seems other folk are also coming to this conclusion: - early, proto-Egyptian / Coptic artifacts found in N America ref-27.

2012 Update: "Native Americans and Northern Europeans More Closely Related Than Previously Thought"

2013 Update - DNA links indigenous folk in eastern Brazil to Polynesia / Madagascar.  ref-25A

The Ainu, an aboriginal Caucasian people living in the northern Japanese islands, are totally isolated by DNA and by geography from Asian contacts.

Therefore they most probably arrived travelling westwards from the Pacific (from the Americas) but previously from Europe.

Did the Ainu sail - during a warm period perhaps before the last Ice Age - across the Atlantic and the Pacific? Are they descended from Vikings who went astray?

Or was an antedeluvian trading post stranded by the collapse - or destruction - of their home civilization?

Summary - Human civilizations: have existed longer than presently accepted, and that science and written histories have been lost, possibly due to at least one cataclysmic event.

Civilization is normally claimed to have originated within last 5 - 6,000 or so yrs, in Sumer and/or Egypt - But we think a longer period is needed :-

a) not by our opinions or the needs of speculations such as those above, but by the time required for various biological and physiological changes to have occurred - as they have - in branches of humanity, during most of our prehistoric past, while mobility was limited by lack of transport and by geography.

Evidence noticed so far:-

some enzyme differences resulting in differing sophisticated digestive processes among some Chinese groups and some African peoples compared with other groups of mainland Europe
some DNA differences  ref-27 capable of being calibrated;
various sophisticated changes  ref-28 in human skin texture and coloration - along an axis from :- minimum required protection from high frequency radiation [within and near tropics]; to:- maximum required exposure of certain skin cells to sunlight (to enable photo-synthesis of vitamins) [from temperate zone to within Arctic or Antarctic];
dinosaurdiscovery (1924) of a naturalistic `living dinosaur' carved by pre-historic humans in the Hava Supai region of the Grand Canyon. [click image for site]

Dinosaurs of that type are supposed to be extinct some 64 million years before humans came along (though world-wide `dragon' myths would seem to say otherwise).
excavation of a pottery factory dated as 26,000 years old at Dolni Vestonice (was Czech. Republic):- James Shreeve in The Neanderthal Enigma - William Morrow & Co 1995
carved ivory artifacts - some complex carvings of man / lion heads - dated at 30,000 - 40,000 years old
1994 discovery of Chauvet Caves (named for Jean Marie Chauvet, one of three discoverers); containing masterly paintings & engravings of horses, lions, bison, rhino & mammoth, carbon-dated to 32,410 yrs +/- 720
Monte Verde excavations (Dillehay) radio-carbon dating reveals humans in S America up to 33,000 years ago.  Language-analysis independently reached same conclusion - see the news report  ref-29
extreme case of crude 'Venus figurine' dated by Israeli archeologists at Berekhat Ram as being shaped 230,000 years ago, (Rudgley R Lost Civilizations of the Stone Age, Century, 1998) update - gives photo
discovery, in France, of an engraved lunar calculator - bone plaque - dated to 32,000 to 34,000 years old (Cunliffe B, Prehistoric Europe, Oxford University Press 1998)
evidence of rock-art / ritual art, using ochre, in Arnhem Land (Northern Territory - Australia) archaeological sites, some dated to 12,000 years and some with suggested origins 50,000 to 60,000 years ago - see extract.  Details -
recently (2001) unearthed - `oldest example of abstract art', dating back more than 70,000 years - engraved pieces of ochre found in Blombos Cave in South Africa.  The research was funded by the US National Science Foundation and is published in the journal Science.
News ( Dec. 2003) "researchers speculate that symbolic thought emerged much earlier than they had believed." - Israel also finds red ochre in cave graves - see full report.
discoveries of loom-woven textiles, by Professor Olga Soffer of the University of Illinois, in sites of the Gravettian people, dated between 22,000 and 29,000 years old
evidence of dentistry tools  ref-30 found by archaeologists in Pakistan.  See results from Dr Cucina (from the University of Missouri-Columbia) and colleagues who dated the finds at c. 9,000 years old
26 March, 2003 Claim of "oldest evidence of human creativity" : 350,000-year-old pink stone axe, discovered at an archaeological site in northern Spain, pink stone axe may represent the first funeral rite by human beings.  Spanish researchers found the axe among the fossilised bones of 27 ancient humans at Atapuerca, near Burgos.  "It's a very special colour," said Juan Luis Arsuaga, director of the Atapuerca excavation.  "They would have needed to search it out.  I think this colour had some significance" he added.  The research is published in the French journal L'Anthropologie.
Sept. 2003 Clothing first worn up to 112,000 years ago.  ref-31 Date comes from DNA analysis of human body lice, determining when they split from head lice - 'cos body louse prefers to live under clothing.
Oct. 2003 Humans using fire & axes up to 300,000 years ago.  ref-32
May 2003 Claimed `oldest sculpture' as 400,000 yr old 2.5 inch `carving' found at Tan-Tan in Morocco, along with stone hand-axes, also dated as being from `Middle Acheulian' period.
Apr. 2004 Jewellery made in S. Africa around 70,000 years ago.  ref-33 
July 2005 "Stone Age toolmakers were hi-tech" - "The archaeologists believe relics at the 2.34-million-year-old site in Kenya, called Lokalalei 2C, display a level of tool-making sophistication among its dwellers that was unique to the Late Pliocene, between 2.6 and 2.0 million years ago."  ref-34
July 2005 "Ancient footsteps lead scientists to believe New World populated 40,000 years ago"  ref-35
Sort-of summarising - "In the 1960s, advanced stone tools were discovered near Hueyatlaco, Mexico. Geologist Virginia Steen McIntyre  ref-36  and other members of a team from the U.S. Geological Survey ... using four independented dating techniques, found that the implement-bearing layers were about 250,000 years old. This result radically contradicts the established notion that humans capable of manufacturing such tools first existed about 100,000 years ago in Africa."
Sep. 2006 "colours were being used in a symbolic way perhaps 200,000 years ago"  ref-37  - At Twin Rivers cave complex (Zambia) there are red, yellow, brown, pink, black and even purple ochres used (perhaps) by people `deliberately selecting the material for the colour property'.
Mar 2007 "Modern humans were living in northern Africa far earlier than previously thought, according to scientists. A new analysis of a 160,000-year-old fossilised jawbone from Morocco shows that the homo sapiens in the area had started having long childhoods, one of the hallmarks of humans living today." Guardan report
Jun 2007 "Perforated shells discovered in a limestone cave in eastern Morocco are the oldest adornments ever found and show humans used symbols in Africa 40,000 years before Europe, the kingdom's government said.  The small oval Nassarius mollusc shells, some dyed with red ochre, were probably pierced to be strung into necklaces or bracelets 82,000 years ago." Reuters report
Oct 2007 - New evidence of early human culture (original site)
- quote "Anatomically the oldest evidence is in East Africa around about 196,000. So at nearly 200,000 years they looked the same as we do now, and there's evidence at 196,000 and then there's some more at 160,000." - full transcript here
May 2008 - `The Oldest American? Footprints from the Past'
- quote "The discovery of 40,000 years old human footprints in Central Mexico challenges accepted theories on when and how humans first colonised the Americas."
June 2009 - `Rewrites history of early humans in America' (original site)
- quote "In 2004, Goodyear and his team dug four meters below the surface and found artifacts in a layer of burnt plant remains that were subsequently tested via radiocarbon dating. The finding that this charcoal deposit is as old as 50,000 years may lend credence to the theory that human habitation on this continent dates much, much earlier than anyone supposed. Goodyear himself asserts that "Topper is the oldest radiocarbon-dated site in North America."
April. 2010 - Re-count on earliest clothing worn - now up to 190,000 years ago.  ref-31 Date comes from DNA analysis of human body lice, determining when they split from head lice - 'cos body louse prefers to live under clothing.
June 2012 - Pottery 20,000 Years Old Found In A Chinese Cave  ref-32 Pottery fragments found in a south China cave have been confirmed to be 20,000 years old, making them the oldest known pottery in the world, archaeologists say.
Nov. 2012 - "Mediterranean islands inhabited much earlier than thought"   ref-33 `First inhabitation of such islands as Cyprus and Crete might have been as many as 170,000 (years ago)'.
Apr. 2013 - Japanese "Jomon" ceramics invented/used by nomadic peoples well before `farming era' ref-34 "Hunter-gatherers living in glacial conditions produced pots for cooking fish - in pottery up to 15,000 years old from the late glacial period"
Apr. 2013 - `China's grinding stones used to process millet and other grains from 23,000 to 19,500 years ago' ref-35 "which is long before people were farming"
Apr. 2013 - `cooking hearths found at Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa' ref-36 "dated to 1.07 to 0. 99 Mya"

Why `Lost Science' and `Lost History'?

Dis :- Lord of Hell and misfortune (a god of ancient Celtic peoples and others around Europe).

Aster :- Star (or any bright sky object?).

Was the original Dis -Aster a world-wide cataclysm presaged by a looming light in the sky? - A comet / meteorite / asteroid? dis-01

Opinions are fast changing dis-02 & dis-03 & dis-04

Geology and climate records show at least one serious Earth-endangering impact which could have happened during the probable frame - up to c.14,000 years ago.

Possible Impact Sites / Lost History

refs. - Sagan re Europe & Persia?, re: Greek loss, Meso-America & India & Persia, China, Mesopotamia, Index - `Dark Ages', Other collapses.

Tree-rings & Trauma

Latest available research shows events of climatic trauma reflected in narrow bands in tree-rings and in ice-core acidity.  `Traumatic' event records come from round the world.

Events dated so far - 5060 BCE, 4375 BCE, 3195 BCE, (2690 BCE), 2345 BCE, 1628 BCE, 1159 BCE, 207 BCE and 540 CE. - see `Irish Tree Rings' / Ice Cores - Table 1
(All to c. +/- 20yrs or so - some research details from paleoecologist Michael Baillie.)

Some experts are still inclined to blame all traumatic events on widespread volcanic eruptions.  Maybe an easy option, but it side-steps the issue of specific causes that might have triggered such widespread outbursts.

Baillie is reported as preferrring the direct solution of cometary impacts - indeed of `swarms' of comets.


Earlier (skeptic) reports - Realistic up-date 2004

Maybe related?

and some specimen pages

And here's the University of New Brunswick's Earth Impact Database

In Pre-History - A World-wide Megalithic Community of Astronomers?

World-Wide - Ancient Egypt - North America

Maybe First
Göbekli Tepe, Turkey

Göbekli Tepe, S-E Turkey
Mnajdra `Temple' - Malta
`Apse' of Mnajdra `Temple'

Next Earliest
Malta  &  Gozo

Ggantija `Temple' - Gozo
Entrance of Ggantija `Temple'

Cetlic - Western Europe

Maes Howe, Orkney Isles, Scotland
Maes Howe, Scotland
New Grange restored
New Grange, Ireland
Bryn Celli Ddu on Anglesey, North Wales
Bryn Celli Ddu, Wales

Vieira's Video
Stone Builders, Mound Builders and the Giants of Ancient America
from Jim Vieira

Think these were used as `Observatories' - not `Temples' or `Tombs' as most `experts' claim.
(we now know those just above were built to align with the winter and summer solstices)
UPDATE - July 2016 - Seems some `experts' are finally seeing sense:
"Maybe `Tombs' were actually Telescopes & Observatories"

The Professors Alexander Thom (father & son) of Scotland discovered the ancient use of a megalithic 'yard' - (2.72 ft) and 'inch' [1/40th of the 'yard']

They also showed that the megalith-builders understood 'Pythagoras' Theorem' long before the ancient Greeks.

Many of the alignments studied would have needed a lifetime's observation.  Ie. - 18.6 year cycle, 19 year cycle (see Metonic cycle below)

From Orkney - a tribute to the Thom's work.

Neolithic Hibernia, modern Ireland, not only had advanced astronomy and therefore mathematics, it also reputedly had a social welfare system since unequaled anywhere, under which no citizen went hungry or unclothed.  See the `Laws of the Fénechus'

A tradition holds that a line of ancient kings of Ireland are descended from (variously):- either Egyptian, or Babylonian or Phoenician (ie. proto Arabic / Hebrew) sea-travelers from eastern Mediterranean

Here's a report tending to confirm legends of neolithic Celtic - Egyptian connection: green-man-search.html

Now we know that sages of the Bronze Age - c. 3,500 yrs ago - traced the Metonic cycle on their wizards' hats, of beaten gold.  The design was really a logarithmic table for calculating Moon, Earth and other alignments ahead of time.

coneshaped golden hat

These wizards regalias have been found in Celtic Germany, Ireland and Wales - see farshores/amcone.htm

[UEF/science readers may find a physical reason for sages/magi to need a thinking cap of dense material that would protect or increase brains' cellular activity.
Why the need for protection?]

Perhaps 5,000 or more years ago their special buildings (today they are often called `tombs') were constructed with skills and knowledge we are only recently becoming qualified to appreciate - see `Stone Age amplifiers' in Malta and in Egypt, & alignments in Ireland - but don't believe all those `tomb' claims!

We can trace a development or inheritance of mathematical astronomy from ancient Anatolia - Sumeria - Babylon - China - India - Arabia - paralleled in Mesoamerica and South America - and only finally to 15th Cent. Europe (see note concerning Europe's Dark Age)

Professor McLeish wrote - "Scientific studies show that non-literate societies throughout the world and throughout history, have worked from a common base of values, superstition, folklore and calendar-linked custom and behavior which is unaffected by geographical, social and historical boundaries and if superstitious belief and ritual are transmitted in this way, why should not factual, correct and even advanced scientific information travel by similar unseen means?"
John McLeish - `Number'; HarperCollins, London 1992 ISBN 0-00-654484-3

See  Worldwide Records of `Four Great Ages'
See  Worldwide Practise/Duty of `Skull/Brain Forcing'?

Arthur C Clarke wrote that advanced technology of visiting aliens - (or of a pre-catastrophe cycle?) - would be indistinguishable from 'magic'
Clarke's Three Laws

So, in light of such reasoning we ask why, c. 7,000 years ago or even much earlier, there was obsessive building of observatories - for checking the sky & planetary movements?

Magic or a Warning?

Megaliths - `big stones' - often bear this curious sign: a central `cup' or pit orbited by up to nine concentric rings, with an `intruder' coming from outside, moving toward central cup

Cup & Ring carvings

Europe:- they have been found in Scandinavia, in Brittany, France, in Ireland, in Wales, in England, in Scotland;

UPDATE - latest set of rock-art images - `cup and ring' and `cup patterns' - from Northumbria.

Also found in Malta & in Middle-East, in India, where they're called "mahadéos" or "Sakta stones", and even a few in central Saharan Africa.

In North America - here's another quote from Science Frontiers
"A cup-and-ring engraving consists of a hollow or cup anywhere from 4 to 30 inches in diameter, surrounded by 1 to 9 rings.  The rings may be gapped, with a narrow groove running through the gaps from the outside.
`Cup-and-rings' have been found at over 700 sites in Great Britain.  Most date between 2200 and 1600 B.C.  The cup-and-ring is much rarer in the States.  A few are known from Alabama, California, Georgia, Hawaii, Texas, and doubtless other states"

varieties of cup & ring

They've also been found in Mesoamerica
See quote below - from `Myths and Legends of the Celtic Race' by T.W.Rolleston 1911

"It is reproduced in Lord Kingsborough's `Antiquities of Mexico' vol. iv.  On the top of a cylindrical stone, known as the `Triumphal Stone' is carved a central cup, with nine concentric circles around it, and a duct or channel, cut straight from the cup through all the circles to the rim"

And even in Australia, at `Ayers Rock'.

Ayer's Rock Art

Also see - HIDDEN BITS OF HISTORY - in Australia
go Edit-Find - "megalithic stone alignments"

Do these world-wide ancient carvings remind us of something?

solar system An image with planetary symbols added, from John Walker's Orrery.  A free software model of the Solar System It can show up to nine orbits.

solar system A `solar-system maze' said to have been built by the Megalith Folk.  Maybe a model of the Solar System?  Almost always contains seven `orbits'.

Let's speculate that `cup and ring' pattern and/or the `mazes' indicate a Sun's solar system.  Notice that number of rings (planets' orbits?), in `cup-&-ring' carvings, is sometimes less than, but never exceeds, nine.  From ancient to recent times, the known planets were firstly 5, then seven, then nine (or now they say 8).

Speculation - Magic or a Warning?

We ask if the carved symbols were originally based on solar system chart?
If, world-wide, prehistoric sages with advanced knowledge of science, or recent memory of cataclysm - in Americas, Europe, N. Africa, Asia, Eur-Asia, and Australia - were trying to check planetary movements?

Are the symbols relics of explanation for a recent catastrophe, or warning of one to come?
Check ancient DISKS

We speculate, from latest data, that both Woodhenge and Stonehenge - when initially built - had up to nine concentric rings of ditches, banks and wooden / stone emplacements.

UPDATE - Nov 2007
Hear a strong rumour that latest archeological project at Stonehenge / Durrington Walls site has found those outer post-holes, containing dateable traces of pine-wood
Problem is : - they're dated to c. 8,000 BCE!
You've probably already realized, from this page and others, that mainstream science doesn't want to admit really ancient signs of civilization - so think the news is being kept under wraps just now.

UPDATE - 19 April 2013
News item:-  "first monument at Stonehenge ... between the 9th and 7th millennia BC"  (text version)
So our `rumour' was soundly based after all;  they were just a bit slow in verifying it!

Speculation 2 - "In The Beginning"

BRIAN MARTIN - Society for Interdisciplinary Studies Review, Vol. 2, No. 4, 1978, pp. 112-118

On reading the accounts of the Velikovsky affair, it would seem that a fundamental reason for the extent of the antagonism of the scientific community to Velikovsky was the great popularity of his work with the general public.  Blissett (1972) states, "the central source of concern seemed to be that Velikovsky's ideas were generating enthusiasm - without first having been qualified by reputable scientific opinion".
The reason for the scientific community's response may not be that Velikovsky's ideas had not been validated by scientists, but that his work was encouraging people to think for themselves and not to defer automatically to the opinions of the "experts".
Part of the threat of Velikovsky's ideas involves links between scientists' adherence to paradigms and their vested interest in specialist expertise.  Most conventional paradigms are based on the ability of scientists to make valid contributions in a narrow area of research, without needing to be aware of wider aspects of their discipline, much less of radically different disciplines.  Velikovsky's approach demands an integration of such fields as history, astronomy, and geology, and places a premium on the generalist.

To the extent that the prestige and privileges of scientists are based on their adoption of research topics and ideas that are not easily communicable to scientists in other disciplines or to the general public, so would Velikovsky's multidisciplinary approach appear as a threat to this prestige and privilege.

In short, the antagonism to Velikovsky can be seen to stem from the wide popularity with the public of ideas that dramatically challenge current scientific paradigms.  In their unorthodoxy, in their interdisciplinary implications, and in their popularity, Velikovsky's ideas posed a real threat to the professional security of the scientific community.

VIDEO - Velikovsky's Truth  -  Solar System and Planetary Formation

"I realized very soon that the ancient sages lived in a frightened state of mind, justified by the events they or their close ancestors had witnessed.

The ancients' message was an anguished effort to communicate their awe engendered at seeing nature with its elements unchained.

The moderns, however, denied their ancestors' wisdom, even their integrity, because of an all-embracing fear of facing the past, even the historically documented experiences of our progenitors, as recent as four score generations ago."

- Immanuel Velikovsky - from The Immanuel Velikovsky Archive

Velikovsky was speculating, amazingly accurately, from highly researched but scant information, and was lambasted by the establishment of the day.  Maybe we can now see the vitriol he received was not due to any faults of fact, but because he'd trespassed on the well-paying preserves of sometimes ignorant and dogmatic `experts'.

Carl Sagan, in `Cosmos': "The worst aspect of the Velikovsky affair is not that his hypotheses were wrong or in contradiction to firmly established facts, but that some who called themselves scientists attempted to suppress Velikovsky's work." - An example of Sagan's hypocrisy (see critique below)

"Having read Velikovsky, I also read Sagan's paper; I thereafter discovered that a group of scientists and scholars had written critiques of Sagan's analysis.  After reading these criticisms I began a search of the literature and over a period of time I became convinced that Sagan's critique lacked substance.

Most surprising was the number of statements made by Sagan that proved to be clearly untrue.
Further reading reinforced this discovery of the glaringly unscientific and unscholarly quality of Sagan's paper.

What was much worse, was that it was difficult to imagine that even Sagan was unaware of the misrepresentation of evidence presented as scholarly criticism by him and offered to the public."

from `Carl Sagan and Immanuel Velikovsky'

Sumer and Babylonia

The Sumerian pictograph for `God' was an Aster * - the asterisk.
Sumerian archeological history begins around 5,000 BCE but the unpreserved (see above) was probably in advance of 10,000 BCE.

Their astronomers developed advanced mathematical functions to permit them to accurately plot and forecast - for many hundred years ahead - cyclical planetary orbital movements and alignments.
From `Astronomy before the Telescope' - British Museum Press 1996 pp 50-67. ISBN 0-7141-2733-7

It is likely the Sumerians, followed by the Babylonians, had good reason to pay attention to planetary motions, and to any anomalies in the sky.

The Sumerians constructed - or inherited? - at least part of the Zodiac:- a ribbon-like map of star groups in the plane of the Solar System - i.e. those we see lying along the path of the Sun, from East to West.  Some of our familiar zodiacal `animal' names are found in Sumerian records.

The zodiacal map was used for practical mathematical & observational purposes.

early zodiac

`Personal Astrology' - the use of the Zodiac for predicting 'future' of human individuals rather than groups - was apparently `invented' much later, maybe at behest of rulers.

Oddly enough, scholars today (2008) have said `Astrology remains an effective working system'

The Zodiac of Sumer, definitely complete by the time of Babylon, was adopted by the Greeks much later.

Both Babylonians and the Chinese were using the 19 year Sun-Moon cycle in their calculations - by the 6th Century BCE.

Westerners call it the 'Metonic' cycle after a Greek who wrote of it some hundred years or so afterwards


Egypt also seems to have had a higher previous level of achievement than we might expect :-

Early Pharaonic graves contained cinnammon, then only obtainable from Sri Lanka.  A surprising logistics feat for people reckoned to be in the `Stone Age'!

In the science field, we've heard - 09 Jan 2001 - of ancient Egyptian mummies which have been found with:-

a) evidence of trepanning [drilling through and opening skull to operate on brain ] which had been successful - because the skull-bones have regrown

b) amputation of digits suffering from clotting or gangrene - again successful 'cos scars have healed - coupled with skillfully made replacement prostheses; artificial toes, fingers etc

Microscopy - lenses

It now seems that lenses were invented / used in Egypt much earlier than formerly thought - and still taught in textbooks.  There are around 400 lenses in museums and site-collections which are dated c. 2500 BCE, and tiny-detailed drawings / carvings, obviously made by using lenses, date from 3300 BCE.

See article `Ancient Ground Optical Lenses' or synopsis at consensus blindness.

But those skills, and the science behind them, have since disappeared for several thousand years.

It seems there's a fundamental - but ignored - problem of the time-line of Egypt's civilization and technology: like that of the Indus Valley (above), it seemed to begin at a peak of building skill, high ornamentation and durability of monuments, then for thousands of years it degenerated.  The most recently built pyramids are no longer to be seen - they were so badly built that they've disintegrated.

And apparently someone shares our doubts - try Chris Dunn's "Machinery at Giza" videos (see RH menu).

Those same 'ancient Egyptians' had given some advice on catastrophe survival to Solon in the sixth century BCE (see Atlantis query)

The Greeks had emerged from a `Dark Age' of lost history which had only ended a few centuries before.  Athens was a pre-monetary state, ruled by aristocrat estate-owners who'd `legally-enslaved' much of the poorer population.

On becoming Archon of Athens (chief magistrate? - wiki) Solon saved the re-emergent but still corrupt state by rewriting its laws and preventing enslavement of citizens by aristocrats.  In fact Solon 'abolished debt-slavery' in Attica in one swoop, curing most of the national ills and leading to earliest Greek `democracy' - but still with `foreign' slaves.

So Greek `hoplite' army and citizens' navy were to be inspired to rebel against Persian (and Medes) oppression.

They won, but - "the Persian Wars opened a new epoch.  But they also closed an old one.  Greek culture had been created from the fruitful interchange between east and west; that debt was now forgotten.  The dichotomies created in the Persian Wars echo through world history and seem ever more likely to continue ... {personal quote} it is we the victors who are the new persecutors of a once proud empire; and like the Greeks, we shall in due course reap our reward".

Quote from `Early Greece' by Oswyn Murray - 1993 ISBN 0-00-686251-9

Retiring from the magistracy, Solon then traveled the known world.  Around 560 BCE - in Sais, a cosmopolitan city of north-west Nile delta - he conferred with the Egyptian priest Sonchis.

This was what Sonchis and his scholars told Solon:-

"O Solon, you [Greeks] are all young in your minds which hold no store of old belief based on long tradition, no knowledge hoary with age"

"The reason is this.  There have been, and will be hereafter, many and diverse destructions of mankind, the greatest by fire and water, though other lesser ones are due to countless other causes"

"Thus the story current also in your part of the world, that Phaethon, child of the Sun, once harnessed his father's chariot but could not guide it on his father's course and so burnt up everything on the face of the earth and was himself consumed by the thunderbolt - this legend has the air of a fable; but the truth behind it is a deviation of the bodies that revolve in heaven around the earth and a destruction, occurring at long intervals, of things on the earth by a great conflagration...."

"Any great or noble achievement or otherwise exceptional event that has come to pass, either in your own parts or here or in any place of which we have tidings, has been written down for ages past in records that are preserved in our temples;"

"whereas with you and with other peoples again and again, life [had only just] been enriched with letters and all the other necessities of civilization when once more, after the usual period of years, the torrents from heaven [swept] down like a pestilence, leaving only the rude and unlettered among you"

"And so you start again like children, knowing nothing of what existed in ancient times here or in your own country.... To begin with, your people remembered only one deluge, though there were many earlier;"

"and moreover you do not know that the noblest and bravest race in the world once lived in your country.  From a small remnant of their seed you and all your fellow citizens are derived; but you know nothing of it because the survivors for many generations died leaving no word in writing."

Above text is Solon's report on returning to Athens (quoted in The Cosmic Winter) attributed by Plato, in `Timaeus'

A few hundred years later, Aristotle - then paramount Greek philosopher - seemed to agree, when writing in his `Metaphysics' about surviving traditions - "... while each art and science has often been developed as far as possible, and then again perished, these opinions, with others, have been preserved until the present like relics (leipsana) of the ancient treasure."
[Book Lambda 1074b]

Ironically we now see that the same loss of science and history - for which the Egyptian scholars had chided Solon the Greek - has happened at least once, possibly twice, to Egypt itself since then [see 'lost' Sphinx below].

Ancient Egypt's other recorded achievements.

1) "Egyptians' 12,300 years of (recorded) astronomy" - Antoniadi

Plato, in the 4th Century BCE, said the Egyptians had been cataloging movements of the stars and planets for at least ten millennia.

2) In the 1st Century BCE the notably impartial Greek historian Diodorus Siculus questioned Egyptian scribes about their civil history.

He reported what they told him - "At first [others] 'gods and heroes' ruled Egypt for a little less than 18,000 years. ...Mortals [the Pharaohs] have been Kings of their country, they say, for a little less than 5,000 years".

This statement is remarkable because normally rulers (and sycophantic courtiers & priests) attempt to extend their pedigrees back to a mythic hero or God - as did the later Pharaohs.  But early Egyptian scribes seem to ignore their hierarchy's prestige in this report.


Early Jesuit missionaries - first ones got there around 1595 CE - were given access to the Chinese Imperial Library where they found 4,320 volumes of the Book of All Knowledge..  [It is not known if it has survived]

In it they read "The planets altered their courses.  The sky sank lower towards the north.  The sun, moon and stars changed their motions.  The earth fell to pieces and the waters in its bosom rushed upwards with violence and overflowed the earth".

[Reported in `The Lost Ship of Noah' Charles Berlitz. WH Allen London 1989 p126 and also quoted by Roger Scrutton - in "Secrets of Lost Atland" Sphere Books Ltd, London 1979 - as statement from Martinus, a Jesuit missionary and historian.]

There are other references in Chinese Empire documents - of first millennium BCE and earlier - to 'lost science' and arts of earlier times.

These were mainly the secrets of chemical and metallurgical processing and the manufacture of instruments and ornaments still existing 2,000 to 3,000 years ago - but which had become mysterious and unexplainable - see "China's dark age".

UPDATE - May 2007 - `Chinese writing '8,000 years old'

But the Chinese scientists may have had more hidden science knowledge - e.g. - of fertility, that we don't have today.

Their astronomy now seems to have been well organized at a very early time - see "China finds ancient observatory - 4,100 yrs old".

And, as early as the Han dynasty, (104 BCE - 220 CE) the astronomer Qi Meng is said to have promoted (or rejuvenated) a cosmic theory that had the planets, the Sun and stars floating freely in "infinite, empty space" and which said these bodies were all "condensed from vapor".  Today this seems to be referred to as the Xuan Ye Theory [wiki].

Even 1500 years later Western rulers (& priests) were still burning people at the stake for thinking and speaking as truthfully as Qi Meng managed to do way back then.

It seems to us that there is evidence that feng-shui and Chinese astrology - and maybe ancient Chinese health & fertility forecasting - could also be traces of lost science.
[Another interesting snippet is at ageing.txt]

It is quite a coincidence that Chinese astronomers/astrologers saw influences coming from cyclical alignments (with base of 12 years maybe at early times) of the solar system's planetary bodies - which are the Chinese horoscopic divisions.

These also just happen to be the simplest/basic part of the sunspot cycle, the sun `weather' cycle and the sun's magnetic field cycle, all of which we now suspect are caused by those same alignments of mass in the solar system, driven probably by the approximately 12 year orbital period of Jupiter, the most massive planetary body.  [The Chinese traditionally paid great attention to the 'stations' of Jupiter.]

We believe - from uef/footnotes - that further `grand cycles' are the main driver of tectonic and earthquake events on Earth.

Stupidity of rulers and bureaucrats - still evident world-wide - can lead to short-term loss of science and learning.  Chinese astronomers are noted for using equatorially-mounted instruments for star observation from around 2400 BCE.

[An ordinary telescope just waggles up or down - but when `equatorially mounted' its center of sideways and up-down motion is first aligned with the Pole Star so you can measure any other star's bearing from that fixed point.  We use such systems now but they weren't `invented' in the West until Tycho Brahe (1546 - 1601 CE) adopted them.]

A huge and impressive equatorially-mounted 'observation instrument' was made for the astronomer Kuo Shou-Ching, for use at Linfen, Shansi, in 1270 CE.

Some two or three hundred years later, during the Ming dynasty, a bone-headed civil-servant or ruler ordered it to be taken to Nanjing (Nanking), a distance of 250 plus miles and nearly 4 degrees of latitude, where it was totally useless.

We can see - in this diagram and photo - the mounted instrument was made to be permanently (and very massively) aligned with the Pole Star.  So it could only be used at a certain latitude.  Otherwise the Pole Star will not line-up with the instrument's central axis and all readings will be wildly 'out-of-whack'.

In only a few hundred years that knowledge had gone.

Told by Robert Temple in The Genius of China Prion Books 1999 ISBN 1-85375-292-4

But those rulers weren't unique, it seems most rulers are mediumly thick.

Some thousand or so years earlier, when the Romans sacked Syracuse, they captured a sundial and took it back to Rome.

Well, like Kuo's `observing instrument', all sundials are only 'right' at one latitude - because the Sun's at a different angle when seen from a point north or south of that line.
But apparently, there was "incomprehension at the highest political level" when the looted prize failed to show the right time.

We're told Syracuse is hundreds of kilometers south of Rome, separated by about 5 degrees.

Story told by Colin Ronan in Astronomy before the Telescope British Museum Press 1999 ISBN 0-7141-2733-7pbk edition

The survival of traces of ancient science and the more effective apparent 'revival' of science in the China of 2,000 to 3,000 years ago could be a clue.

Evidence in the West

Facts above may be significant when compared to an almost total absence - or loss - of a scientifically knowledgeable civilization in the opposite Western hemisphere.  (See "Europe's Dark Age")

The western disadvantage or loss, may have been the result of a meteor, asteroid or comet strike maybe impacting north of the equator, affecting the Earth's western hemisphere.

Evidence of an impact and subsequent wide-spread volcanic activity comes with the sudden ending of the last Ice Age, (search - Wisconsin Ice Cap), in results of geological / astronomical research and more particularly in fossil evidence.

Multiple other examples exist.  For instance there are corpses of stranded large sea-creatures along with bodies of humans and other animals: co-victims found hundreds of miles inland.  Many of these are in North America.

And the McKittrick & La Brea Tar Pits of California are said to contain bodies of humans, sabre-toothed tigers, bison, camels, horses, sloths, extinct raptors and mammoths.

Was there a continental (or inter-continental) dis-aster?

Probable window - c. 13,000 years ago.
Fossils - R S Luss, London 1931 p28; and also The New Geology G M Price 1923, p 579
(For a Babylonian reference see footnotes3.html#Visitors)

Impact Forecasts

Impact Forecast Graph

Every 2,000 to 5,000 years we can expect a `climate-changing' impact, and every 10,000 to 20,000 years you can expect an impact of more than a few hundred megatons (many thousands of times more than Hiroshima / Nagasaki), which "devastates continent-scale regions".

Mass Extinctions - %ages of Species Killed Off

Extinction Graph
Graph from `Universe Review'


Only 20,000 years ago North America had populations of armadillos as big as an automobile, horses, camels, huge ground sloths, large and small elephant types like mastodons and mammoths, dire wolves, giant bears, lions and other big cats, including three kinds of saber-toothed tigers.

A check of `Native' American myths and legends gives these keyword clues -
[found] monstrous animals, alien people (`magicians') in residence (w/`magic' technology, ownership / enclosure of `good' animals); cataclysm - giant tidal wave, flood & earthquakes & (some) volcanoes; disappearance / loss of `monsters'; capture / theft / gifting of `good' animals'; subsequent disappearance of `magicians' / `aliens' from the record of myths and legends.

Flood myths

N. American `Creation' myths

Maybe also see this collection of World Creation Myths.

SCENARIO - Asians enter N America via Beringia (Siberia - Alaska) and find a country with many large alien predators and also huge herbivores, all of which they term `monsters'.  (A long time previously, asian bison had also crossed into Alaska - Canada region.  These, along with various deer, sheep, goats, were recognized by the Asians and regarded as `good' animals).

BUT - there was already another, more technologically advanced human group in residence, probably along the Eastern coast of N. America and probably living in cities with farmed or enclosed `good' animals.

From European compulsive observatory building, from Ancient Egypt's records, and from Old India's Mahabharata, and later evidence (see below), we read that a large asteroid or a meteor swarm descended over Europe and Africa - probably impacting in North America or the Atlantic Ocean (see `Carolina Bays' evidence below).

This conclusion also comes partly from the fearful reports, in ancient myths & legend, of `fire descending from the sky' - as seen in Africa, Middle-East and Europe as the space-intruder(s) passed overhead, and partly from the mixed legends created among the Asian incomers to N. America.

Some probable late-comers recorded a "flooded land" but other earlier arrivals - the Pima, Papago, Cheyenne, and Netsilik Inuits for instance - speak of a "giant tidal wave - flood - cold" in their legends.  These were all `Asian' immigrants and probably made up the `Clovis' people - now acknowledged to be later arrivals.

The entire world will have felt generalized after-effects of the strike: many camel types, all mammoths and also many elephants, typical large browsers then living in many lands around the world, went extinct in the resulting `long-winter'.  However the North American continent, especially the eastern states, took the brunt of immediate shock and inundation by tidal wave.

Possibly, the strike(s) may have initiated or accelerated the close of the Ice Age and the subsequent calamitous rise in sea-levels.

It seems that an earlier civilization, the "more advanced group" spoken of both in Native American legends (see above) and in more recent archeological findings of remains of taller, long headed people, had been based in eastern North America (call them Atlanteans maybe?).  This civilization was destroyed by the strike(s) - its ruined cities covered by tidal waves and then by the fast rising ocean.

And the largest animals - the `monsters' observed by the Asian incomers - were simply wiped out.  Not so much by the event but by the period of intense deprivation which followed the strike - a huge salt-water flooding event, followed by a `nuclear winter' lasting maybe tens - or even hundeds - of years, all of which devastated leaf and grass plant-life.  So the largest eaters, and their predators, just couldn't survive.

Fast-forward to `civilized' times:

The events have been buried by twelve to thirteen millennia of forgotten past.  With civilizations rising and falling, with libraries burned by censoring priests and / or over-written by credulous or corrupt churchmen  or later bureaucrats (still happening now), the realities of the cataclysm have become as dim, and about as believable, as a fairy-tale.

After the Ice-Age: Dryas Blip References -
Surprise - Sudden warming and flood
Sudden Cold Snap -
Shut down Gulf Stream? -

REPORT '05 "Comets blasted early Americans" -LBL scientist reports 27 Oct '05.

Catch-up? - 2007 AGU Research - "Evidence for an Extraterrestrial Impact Origin of the Carolina Bays on the Atlantic Coast of North America" - Quote - `The assemblage of geochemical and sediment signatures of extraterrestrial impact found in Bay sediments are essentially the same as in the pan-North-American Younger Dryas impact boundary layer (the YDB), dated at 12.9 ka. We hypothesize that at least some Bays were formed by the YD impact during the last deglacial'

Catch-up 2 - May 2007 - "Fireballs set half the planet ablaze, wiping out the mammoth" - Quote - `Scientists will outline dramatic evidence this week that suggests a comet exploded over the Earth nearly 13,000 years ago, creating a hail of fireballs that set fire to most of the northern hemisphere.' - & text copy

Catch-up 3 - Sept 2007 - "Extraterrestrial Impact Likely Source Of Sudden Ice Age Extinctions" - & text copy

Catch-up 4 - Jan 2009 - "No mega-fauna skeleton or Clovis artefact has been found above the impact layer" - & text copy

Catch-up 5 - July 2009 - "California's Channel Islands Hold Evidence ... that a cosmic impact about 12,900 years ago ripped through North America and drove multiple species into extinction" - & text copy

Catch-up 6 - April 2010 - "Giant Comet Responsible for a North American Catastrophe in 11,000 BC?" - & text copy

Catch-up 7 - Sept. 2010 - "Nanodiamonds Discovered in Greenland Ice Sheet, Contribute to Evidence for Cosmic Impact" - & text copy

Catch-up 8 - Mar. 2012 - "Study supports theory of extraterrestrial impact" - & text copy

Catch-up 9 - May 2012 - "Early North Americans Lived With Extinct Giant Beasts" - & text copy

Catch-up 10 - June 2012 - "New Evidence Supports Theory of Extraterrestrial Impact" - & text copy

Catch-up 11 - Sept. 2012 - "Comet May Have Exploded Over Canada 12,900 Years Ago After All" - & text copy

Catch-up 12 - Dec. 2012 - "American lions, saber-toothed cats were living well just before they went extinct" - & text copy

Catch-up 13 - May 2013 - "The Mammoth's Lament: How Cosmic Impact Sparked Devastating Climate Change" - & text copy

Catch-up 14 - May 2013 - "Comprehensive analysis of impact spherules - continues to point to a major cosmic impact as the primary cause for the tragic loss of nearly all of the remarkable American large animals that had survived the stresses of many ice age periods only to be knocked out quite recently by this catastrophic event." - & text copy

Catch-up 15 - Aug. 2013 - "100-fold increase in platinum concentration occurs in ice that is around 12,890 years old - the same period for which oxygen isotope measurements show rapid cooling of the climate" - & text copy

Catch-up 16 - Sept. 2013 - Meteor Impact in Quebec 12,900 Years Ago Resulted in Prehistoric Climate Shift ... "we have for the first time narrowed down the region where a Younger Dryas impact did take place, even though we have not yet found its crater." - & text copy

Catch-up 17 - Feb. 2014 - "Did a Comet Kill the Woolly Mammoths?"  "James Kennett, professor emeritus in the University of California, Santa Barbara, department of Earth science, posits that such an extraterrestrial event occurred 12,900 years ago" - & text copy

Catch-up 18 - July 2015 - Younger Dryas Cosmic Impact Event Dated "Our analysis shows with 95 percent probability that the dates are consistent with a single cosmic impact event." - & text copy

Catch-up 19 - April 2017 - "Vulture Stone (Gobekli Tepe) recorded devastating comet strike" - Ancient stone carvings confirm how comet struck Earth in 10,950BC, sparking the rise of civilisations - [text copy at link]

Review of Evidence of Multiple Western Impacts


Here are a few clues which - along with others - we can use to work out a more reasonable explanation for today's world.

- genetic isolation of (Caucasian) Ainu on islands along western Pacific coast (Northern Japan)

- enzyme differences and skin-tone differences, needing time and isolation, having developed between Caucasians and Sino-Asians (plus some skin-tone differences between various Sino-Asian groups)

- DNA puzzles in pre or post Ice-Age North Americans

- major human lineages differentiated up to c 50 Kyrs ago or more - see Glacials timeline and Ice-Age timeline

- contradictions re: Pacific diffusion

- smaller clues you might spot in this page and maybe others

From all above on this page - you can see there are some difficulties with the establishment version of history and prehistory, maybe even with the establishment version of recent human evolution.

This page began with mention of a suspicion that a physical effect causes most human mass-migration to be predominantly westward.

Reviewing written history you see huge influxes of whole ethnic groups into Europe from the East over long periods of time, many of these squeezing other groups to the North and South around coast-lines, and in turn being squeezed themselves by later arriving groups.

We can also see that there is reason to believe Central (and South) America received large groups of seemingly ethnic Africans / Egyptians, and perhaps earlier (and also later) ethnic `Europeans'.  This evidence is two-part -

1) physical and DNA evidence (above); plus the sudden appearances of groups over time in last 3 - 4,000 years;  each group succeeding the last and sometimes over-lapping, resulting in conflict.

2) `legends' of native peoples in North and South Americas telling of a `bearded man' (with magic / technology) arriving from the East in the distant past.  (Native Americans are typically un-bearded, not growing that much facial hair.)

Looking at those clues above, we see that Sino-Asians retain the largest enzyme and other physiological differences, which would have needed the longest time in isolation from Europeans (and Africans).

The present `home' location of Sino-Asians would not have given that isolation.

Neither does it provide the necessary spread of latitudes (north-south) for the many differences of skin-tone (radiation reaction and vitamin generation) seen within and between Sino-Asian groups.

A speculative conclusion - one way the confusion might be explained:-

We're looking for one place which could have provided that isolation for the Sino-Asians, from say perhaps 3 million years ago (at an extreme) or maybe from 410,000 or even (at the closest) from around 120,000 years ago (three significant periods of high temperature - see `Ice Ages Graphs - Wiki).

And we have to choose the Americas for that isolation.  That continent also gives them the necessary spread of latitudes (north-south) for the many differences of skin-tone (radiation reaction and vitamin generation) seen even within groups now called `Chinese'.

[For example - if present day populations were frozen in place and extended for 1,000,000 years or so, then the people of the Americas would evolve into `black skinned' at the equator and their skin-tones would get paler and paler towards higher latitudes (towards the poles).]

Then other possibilities fall into place:-

a) That, during a warm-onset period, say c.410,000, or c.330,000, or c.240,000, or c.130,000 years ago (or at latest c.12,000 yrs ago - see `Ice Ages Graphs - Wiki), Sino-Asians began a westward move from the Americas - either by sea directly across the Pacific, or hugging the coast and crossing Bering Straits, maybe preceded by end-of-cold period exploration using Beringia (land-bridge) route.

b) That subsequent Sino-Asian settlement of coastlines of the Western Pacific drove `Euro-types' westward, and incidentally trapped the Ainu (Caucasian - `Euro-types) on the Japanese Islands - to later get squeezed onto the northern islands by Sino-Asians (proto-Japanese) occupying the larger islands.

We can also speculate that the Sino-Asian migration (westward from the Americas) was triggered by `catastrophe' of some sort - because all those zig-zags on the graph represent large Earth-changes caused by terrestrial or extra-terrestrial events.

It's to be expected that many or even all other groups were also affected by the larger events, so their departure might well have co-incided with arrivals of, and maybe clashes with, groups entering the Americas from the East - from Europe (north and south) and maybe also from Africa / Egypt.

In addition, if those early `Euro-types' entered the Americas say after 130,000 yrs ago, perhaps initiating an `Atlantean' civilization extending down eastern North America, we could find an explanation of `lineage X' within the ancient mitochondrial DNA (mDNA) of native North Americans, and also a source of those `alien magicians' (Atlanteans?) in the Native American legends of many tribes.

UPDATE 2013 - Latest DNA findings (from a Siberian boy who died 24,000 years ago) show common Native American roots plus Western Asian or European genes, but the boy had no genetic relationship to modern East Asians.

Possibly Linked

Great Cycle?
Magic or Mass


The Fish

wise fish?


sphinx       lion

working there - if dis-satisfied - try later

The Maiden Goddess

Maiden Goddess

The Mother Goddess

Mother Goddess

(pre Egypt?)
all-reaching truth
final judgement

Ma'at - goddess of truth, final judgement

(pre Egypt?)
birth, joviality & guardianship

Bes - god of birth, joviality & guardianship

Eye of Horus
(pre-dynastic Egypt)
Realization, Revelation

Eye of Horus



Queen Maeve

Queen Maeve

Don't want to give 'magical' or 'superstitious' flavors to this page - but

You might have already noticed - from conventional physics - the striking 'coincidences' of

a) folk-history 'magic' - taboos on certain metals, use of running water, natural conductors, insulators, `earthing' etc.

b) modern knowledge of electromagnetic phenomena & techniques,


an interesting speculation is recently feasible

while even more bizarre speculation is even more recent.


"Archeologists all over the world have realized that much of prehistory, as written in the existing textbooks, is inadequate.  Some of it is simply wrong" Colin Renfrew, writing in `Before Civilization'
[try newlook.txt ]

We could wish that some establishment physicists were as truthful as Renfrew.

See "Blind Science" for details
of our ignorant - but always arrogant - academics.

[new window]

We'll try to trace events, more ancient than blinkered experts admit to, which may still be influencing human civilizations.

We may have to look back 13,000 years - or more than 26,000 years.



"Dualism or Dichotomy"

"Magic or Mass"


"Great Cycle?"

Unexplained Mysteries

Human Mutations
The Sphinx
Dowsing / Feng Shui


Strange Mag - Enigmatic Erratics
Atlantis Quest - Controversy
Free Republic - Strange Stories, Weird Facts

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