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Leibniz

"The interconnection or accommodation of all created things to each other, amd each to all the others,
brings it about that each simple substance has relations that express all the others, and consequently,
that each simple substance is a perpetual living mirror of the universe"

- The Monadology - 1714


Leibniz

New Physics from Metaphysics

His Principles


Principle of sufficient reason:

"I am granted this important principle, that nothing happens without a sufficient reason why it should be thus and not otherwise."


SPACE
When applied to `space', or the problem of `position' in the universe, this enables us to ask  `is there a reason why the universe, in its entirety, might not have been created, or come into being, two foot to the left?'

`No':  we wouldn't know any different, nor would the universe.

TIME
Similarly, we can ask  `is there a reason why the universe, in its entirety, might not have been created, or come into being, one year earlier, or later?'

`No':  we wouldn't know any different, nor would the universe.


might give us this


SPACE
That the concept of absolute space, or of a `fixed' position in the universe, is non-valid: any position in space is merely relative to all the bodies and beings in the universe;

- that each body and being in the universe contains within its description information defining its instantaneous relationship with all other bodies and beings in the universe:  i.e. `entanglement'.

TIME
That, although a cosmic `time' might be operating, we can have no knowledge of how events in our universe are positioned within it;

- moreover, Leibniz seemed to be of the opinion that each body or being contains information not only about its past but also about its future:  i.e. `entanglement in [cosmic] time'.


Then :


Principle of the identity of indiscernibles:

"That if there is no discernible difference between the identities - descriptions - of two supposedly different bodies, or locations, then they are one and the same thing."
or
"That no two different objects can have the same description"


So any body, particle or location must be capable of being uniquely identified in the universe:  leading to the further conclusion that there must be sufficient variety in the universe to enable this.


I.e.


Principle of sufficient variety:

"That the universe has sufficient variety to endow all bodies with unique identities or descriptions, of relationships and locations."


That is, without the need to use more information than the universe could hold.



might give us this


The principle of sufficient variety could mean that a homogeneous or zero-variety universe is unlikely or impossible.

That is, a `big crunch' or `big freeze' or `heat death' are ruled out because they would be `low or zero-variety' conditions:  the universe is therefore potentially ever-lasting and eternal.

More interestingly, taken at face-value, the conclusion would also exclude a universe-creation by a `big bang' - another low or zero-variety state.

That is, our Universe began, and exists, in a way not presently understood by mainstream science.


Finally :



Due to the inter-relatedness of all entities in the Universe - `the interconnection of all things with one another' - even the least action, no matter how `inconsequential' it might appear to be, must have consequences and outcomes affecting the whole universe.




Leibniz

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

(1646-1716)


Diplomat (and linguist), mathematician, logician and philosopher - of physics and rationalism among other disciplines - his logic led him eventually to refute `materialism' and to re-define the concepts of `space' and `time'.



The phrase `the best of all possible worlds' was misquoted / misattributed to Leibniz, probably due to folk failing to grasp the reasoning behind his expressions of `parsimony', `least action', and `sufficient variety'.
These led to his description of the universe as being - "the most perfect, that is to say the one which is at the same time the simplest in hypotheses and the richest in phenomena"
- from  `Discourse on Metaphysics'



Leibniz' thoughts on basic physics led him to anticipate Einstein's later foreboding  (as did Wallace) -

"Reality cannot be found except in One single source, because of the interconnection of all things with one another. ... I maintain also that substances, whether material or immaterial, cannot be conceived in their bare essence without any activity, activity being of the essence of substance in general."
- Gottfried Leibniz, 1670





Acknowledgements for inspiration and starting points to
Lee Smolin and his book `The Life of the Cosmos'






Leibniz' theories on `truth' and `communication', the `infinite' & `infinitesimals' (i.e. Leibniz' Calculus); `body', `mind' `intelligence', `soul' and more, are discussed by various modern scholars in
`Leibniz: critical and interpretive essays'   (Univ Of Minnesota Press)




Leibniz is reported as being a philosophical, friendly and amicable personality.  Even his reaction to the plagiarism of Newton (who laid claim to Leibniz' Calculus), and his later responses, to Newton's lies and bad-mouthings, were relatively mild and dignified.



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