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Earlier UEF


sorry about style - wanted `accurate' - got `stilted'

THIS WAS PROBABLY THE EARLY VERSION

SENT TO ARTHUR C. CLARKE

(UEF was then called CBGR)


CBGR: Cosmic Background Gravity Radiation

Foreword:-

Several draft versions of this introduction to - and explanation of - CBGR have been circulated during 1996. It is to be hoped that the latest version has more clarity, containing expanded answers to comment and enquiry from early readers. Collaborative work on Mathematical relationships is underway, from March 1997.. This page is a WEB DRAFT and it is planned to make improvements giving links to detail, and to explanation of physics jargon.
All comments are welcomed and are confidential.

Contents:- Conditions- Hypothesis - Outline - Action - Phenomena - Mathematical relationships - Attributes - Conclusion.

Conditions :- There is a perceived need for the Universe to have been inflated by some force.

That force ceased inflating the Universe and further expansion proceeded at a slower pace. At some later time there exists a seemingly persistent force which pushes matter towards matter, at least to electron level, with a power inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
Forces are also responsible for various phenomena, these include:- Newton's Water Experiment; Mach's Pendulum; Inertia; Conservation of Momentum; Gyroscopic effect; magnetic attraction and repulsion; electro-magnetic radiation (e.m.r.); directionality of e.m.r.; dual wave & particle perceptions of e.m.r. (Young's Two Slit Experiment)(fermion - boson diversity); crustal deformation of planetary bodies; navigational abilities of biological organisms.
Hypothesis :- That these apparently disparate phenomena have one cause, which itself may be primarily the result of one cosmic event.

Outline :- Dense, hot matter emitted repelling particles travelling much faster than light. This explosion of particles inflated the Universe, then left it behind, to continue expanding at a slower rate. The particles impart energy while penetrating all matter. They now arrive from all directions, as do cosmic rays and as does cosmic background microwave radiation (CBMR).

Action :- "Gravity" acts on the centre of mass of a body, of any size. Therefore the particles (by which "gravity" acts) must have the ability to penetrate all matter.

It is not envisaged that such particles can be generated within bodies, therefore they are of cosmic origin arriving equally from all directions, creating a uniform field of compression.

Any object of mass M casts a radiated or monopole shadow - i.e. the sort of shadow cast by a dark object central to a spherically-lit space - in this cosmic background gravity radiation, which an observer of mass m, also casting a similar shadow, will perceive as an attraction of intensity I = M x m/distance squared.

In addition to seemingly "attractive gravity", interaction with CBGR pressure provides the "inertia" of a mass when at rest, "momentum" when in uniform motion, and "gravity-like" effects when in non-uniform motion.

This interaction applies to masses down to elementary particle size, probably regulated by the Planck length, and is measurable in terms of Planck's constant. Electro-magnetic phenomena resulting from elementary particle interaction with CBGR are included with others below.


Phenomena :-

1) Momentum. Momentum is expended proportional to the amount of CBGR field intersected by a mass, hence "conservation of momentum". An example often quoted (without explanation), is an ice-dancer executing a spin with arm or leg gracefully extended. When the extended limb is slowly drawn in to the body, the rate of spin increases automatically, because less CBGR field is being intersected by a given body-mass. Because the ice-dancer is spinning, this phenomenon is termed "conservation of angular momentum".

2) Inertia and the acceleration effect. Inertia is due to the compressive effect of the CBGR field; acceleration / deceleration pressures are due to non-uniform motion through the CBGR field.
3) Gyroscopic action, on Earth and in free space. On Earth a gyroscope, rotating at high speed in the vertical plane, also turns laterally due to the CBGR pressure differential felt at all points on Earth's surface. Net CBGR pressure, caused by Earth's rotation, is from East to West and is therefore minimal at the Poles, rising to a maximum at the Equator. The gyroscope owes its sensitivity to its mass having equal acceleration and deceleration relative to CBGR particles arriving in the plane of rotation (i.e. zero net CBGR interaction in that plane). But CBGR particles arriving from any direction other than the plane of rotation will still be imparting momentum. In free space the CBGR arriving from all lateral directions would be balanced but on Earth the edge of the gyroscope pointing toward the equator could be moving through the field at a relative speed of approx 1,000 mph while the edge of the gyroscope pointing toward the pole could be moving through the field at zero relative speed [if the gyroscope were 6,000 miles wide]. But no matter what size the gyroscope is, there will be a net CBGR differential across it. Being free to turn laterally, the gyroscope responds to these relatively large lateral CBGR pressures, turning at a rate approximately proportional to the CBGR differential. Although on Earth a gyroscope turns laterally, its plane of rotation will become fixed when rotating at rest in free space, since it will experience no net CBGR differential. However, in a moving space-vessel a gyroscope will show a reaction to the differential caused by significant non-uniform motion through free space.


4) Newton's Water experiment.

Newton's buckets of water

The surface of the water becomes concave only when the water is rotating relative to the Universe, not relative to the container.
When the water begins to rotate the mass of the moving water has equal acceleration and deceleration relative to the CBGR field in the horizontal plane. However at all other angles the water's mass experiences increased interaction with the CBGR field, proportional to their relative velocities (the centre of the fluid having lower relative velocity than the outer portion). CBGR interaction imparts momentum, therefore, in a fluid the outer mass will have greater momentum imparted, from below as well as from above. Therefore on Earth a rotating fluid mass will bend upwards from the centre while it is rotating because the outer portion is experiencing a greater gravity effect from interaction with CBGR arriving from below . In free space a rotating fluid mass (i.e. a galaxy) has zero net CBGR interaction in the plane of rotation but experiences large and equal pressures from above and below the plane of rotation. These pressures "thin" the mass to a disc. At present the extra "stability" possessed by a galactic disc is ascribed to "dark matter" or other unknowns; in reality this stability is the expected result of CBGR interaction. On Earth, for a rigid body, the same phenomenon will maintain the position of the plane of rotation of the body during the period of sufficient rotating speed. See Galaxies, Spinning Top and Gyroscope.


5) Mach's Polar Pendulum. The pendulum swings in a plane fixed by the universe, i.e. not following Earth's rotation. In its plane of motion the pendulum has equal amounts of positive and negative acceleration (i.e. there are zero net CBGR pressures in the plane of motion). Therefore the position of its plane of motion is maintained relative to the Universe, by the momentum imparted by interaction with the CBGR field arriving from all other (lateral) directions.

6) Rotation / formation of galaxies. An association of stars - an embryo galaxy - is in gradual compression. Any CBGR differential (perhaps caused by a nearby attractor) will tend to start a whirlpool action, initially in the mass of the galaxy furthest from the attractor. Rotation is begun by imbalance of mass around the primary axis of pressure:- (net CBGR > galaxy > attractor), for, as the galaxy is also being compressed laterally by CBGR, "conservation of angular momentum" amplifies any initial small swing. As rotation (non-uniform motion) is established the galaxy is "thinned" to a disc by lateral CBGR pressure which also stabilizes the disc beyond the radius of a viable spherical core. Any core instability, resulting in intermittent dual ejecta, is defined by the core mass and the existing CBGR field intensity. Perhaps the whirlpool effect operates without a nearby attractor if a perceptible CBGR differential is created by three dimensional asymmetry in the mass of the galaxy.


7) Emission of discrete gravity radiation, GR. Although it is presumed that CBGR originated at a time of universal dense hot matter, it is imaginable that sub-cosmic events could reproduce these conditions, causing emission of the high speed energy bearing particles of CBGR. Electro-magnetic radiation interacts with "gravity" (see "gravity lenses"), and if GR can be emitted by sub-cosmic events any discrete gravity radiation emitted at or behind a source of light will decrease the wavelength of that light, giving a blue shift, or subtracting from the red shift expected of the light source. (The momentum factor in Planck's ratio means that the wavelength of electro-magnetic radiation is governed by the intensity of the CBGR field, along with other factors.) This phenomenon could assist detection of discrete gravity radiation if it is emitted by sub-cosmic events:- a) on a small scale - by the collision of neutron stars. HUBBLE pictures of an event show a blast of light radiating in one plane from an impact point, with ejecta departing perpendicularly as two opposed jets; b) on a large scale - by instability in a galactic core throwing out similarly opposed ejecta, these to form the arms of spiral galaxies. Such events might explain radio "bow-tie" objects and visible "straight-line" objects with anomalous redshift readings. Redshift readings of some straight-line triple objects are of this order :- 2.1; 0.5; 1.6. If the anomalous reading of the central point is due to acceleration of its light by GR emission, then the remaining small difference between redshifts (of the ejecta) is probably due to simple rotation of the complete object, and past GR emission can be inferred from such an event. [Query, from HUBBLE pictures:- Eta Carinae, SN1987a, M82, M87, NGC4261, NGC5728, NGC2440, and maybe others.]



8) Electro-magnetic effects; electro-magnetic radiation. It is suggested that Planck's constant could be said to be the reaction of an elementary particle to the CBGR field, the electron's expenditure of angular momentum. First this means that any change in CBGR intensity will change the value of Planck's constant. Secondly, electro-magnetic radiation is likely to be a radiated, backwards-travelling compression, imposed by electron momentum on the CBGR field incoming to the e.m.r. source. For want of a better term the action impressed on the CBGR particles (and traveling out, i.e. backwards through the incoming field), can be thought of as a vibration or oscillation. [The CBGR particles of the field are, due to their speed and momentum, mutually sensitive to each others actions.] The discrete magnetic effect, exhibiting as it does the physical effects characteristic of a reaction with CBGR, must then be produced by the induced "spin" of some or all of the CBGR particles outgoing from the e.m.r. source, sufficient to produce alignment, i.e. apparent attraction or repulsion of material with an atomic structure of the right dimensions to be affected by the radius and angular velocity of that spin. Also, due to its being caused by affected CBGR particles, the magnetic effect should travel at a different speed, possibly a higher speed, than does e.m.r. [Incidentally, a magnetic monopole does not exist, since a magnetic pole is merely an entrance or exit for affected CBGR particles diverted through the magnetic material.]


9) Directionality of electro-magnetic radiation (e.m.r). Any point in our universe is a focus of CBGR particles. Random electron acceleration imposes a backward travelling compression (which we call e.m.r.) on the incoming CBGR field; this compression radiates outwards, apparently evenly, at intensity I=1/d2. When electrons are forced to accelerate at a significant rate and in a specific direction a degree of directionality is imposed on the resulting e.m.r., caused by net interaction with CBGR in the direction of travel. Radiation to the side and backwards directions decreases accordingly. The degree of directionality is the product of the net electron velocity and the CBGR field intensity: i.e. the occurrence rate and speed of CBGR particles.



10) Wave / Particle perceptions of e.m.r. From the foregoing paragraphs one can appreciate why experimenters have previously been able to decide that light is made up of a) waves of energy; b) particles bearing energy. Unfortunately experiments which prove one always rule out the other but both are clearly true. [Young's Two Slit experiment is a classic and still cannot be fully explained by conventional theories.] CBGR demands that both wave and particle characteristics are measurable when e.m.r. is examined


11) Possible nearby examples of waning of CBGR intensity. These strengthen speculation that a decrease in intensity of CBGR is underway. If "gravity" were an unchanging Force, planetary surfaces should not be as they are today. A continental crust, although possibly buckled by the planet cooling and shrinking beneath it, would still be a complete surface over a planet. However "gravity" is caused by CBGR which is possibly decreasing in intensity, and we find that planets and moons look as if they have split their continental crusts by expansion, pushing the split skin apart in large or small fragments. Both Earth and Mars have split their crusts deeply and spread the fragments at differing rates, with the Earth leading. I.e. the continents of Earth are spread more widely. Our Moon shows signs of having split its initial crust and then having turned the gaping areas towards Earth. Other satellites, Ariel and Miranda for instance, show signs of splitting crusts, but to a lesser degree. The planets and satellites seem to turn the "areas of spread" towards the direction of least CBGR compression, i.e. the recent average direction of their neighbour or primary. Earth, which has the highest relative density, seems to have expanded most; and the others have expanded in proportion to their relative densities. All of this is to be expected if CBGR has decreased in intensity during planetary lifetimes.


12) Possible examples of exploitation of CBGR by living organisms. Insects and other small flying animals navigate with unexplainable accuracy. A mechanism with rotating or quasi-rotating parts (.i.e a gyroscope) responds to the CBGR differential that exists from the Poles to the Equator; the mechanism can be said to "know" its N-S position, from information supplied by the CBGR differential. Net CBGR arrives from the East, regardless of the differential, and a rotating mechanism responds to movement towards, or away from net CBGR. It can be said to be "aware" of E-W movement. Insects and other small flying organisms, by virtue of rotating or quasi-rotating flight musculature and such muscle feedback, might share this ability to use the information supplied by CBGR pressures, to "be aware" of their E-W movement and to"know" their N-S position.


Mathematical relationships :- It is to be expected that mathematical relationships exist between the intensity of the CBGR field (speed and frequency of CBGR particles) and the following:- a) the rotational speed (and escape velocity) of a spiral galaxy; b) the rate of "thinning" of a galactic disc; c) the frequency of galactic core reactions giving rise to new spiral arms; d) the physical values of effects on gyroscopes, pendulums, planets, galactic discs and other objects given energy (either extra "stability" or actual movement) by interaction with the CBGR field; e) the value of interactions between elementary particles and CBGR, (e.g. Planck's constant at present); f) the degree of directionality of e.m.r. generated by a given acceleration of an electron.



Attributes of CBGR:- A) Speed. From Outline and from Phenomena, the lowest allowable speed of CBGR particles is some multiple of the speed of light. B) Motion. It is implied that bodies travelling at "normal" uniform velocities will not experience "gravity-like" effects, due to the ratio of "normal" attainable speed relative to the speed of CBGR particles; but that non-uniform velocities produce noticeable effects. However an unshielded observer must experience large "gravity-like" effects when travel approaches a significant fraction of the speed of CBGR particles. C) Rest. At rest, a screening or repelling of CBGR, in a flat plane, will produce a "gravity-like" effect around the perpendicular to the plane of the screen. If the screening were total that effect would be large beyond feasible measurement. D) Duration. Being mainly the result of a single event, the intensity of the CBGR field is either increasing or decreasing at this time.


Conclusion and further speculation :- There are implications for physicists in the comprehension of CBGR, both in the recognition of its compressive and propulsive power, which may be available to us, and in the knowledge that this force may be transient and peculiar to our universe. That is, if our universe, which is subject to CBGR, is a localized affair, there may other regions, perhaps an "outer void", where such a force may either have dissipated or never existed. If matter exists in such regions it may well be more relaxed in its structure.

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