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Date: Tue, 21 Jan 2014 10:08:23 -0600 (CST)
Wolfram Science Summer School 2014


There is still time to apply to the 12th annual Wolfram Science Summer School:
http://www.wolframscience.com/summerschool

You are invited to apply to the three-week, tuition-free summer program, to be held in Boston, Massachusetts from June 29 to July 18, 2014.  The Wolfram Science Summer School (formerly the NKS Summer School) is hosted by Wolfram Research, makers of Mathematica and the computational knowledge engine Wolfram|Alpha, and Stephen Wolfram, world-renowned author of "A New Kind of Science" (NKS).

We are looking for highly motivated individuals who want to get involved with original research at the frontiers of science.  Our participants come from many diverse backgrounds, but share a common passion to discover and explore cutting-edge ideas.  Over the past 11 years, they have included graduate students, undergraduates, professors, industry professionals, artists, and even a few exceptional high school students.

If accepted to the Summer School, you will work directly with others in the Wolfram Science community, including Stephen Wolfram and a staff of instructors who have made significant contributions to NKS and Wolfram|Alpha.  You will develop your own original project that could become the foundation of published papers or your thesis.

Take a look at the lecture notes from previous years to get a sense of what topics will be covered:
http://www.wolframscience.com/summerschool/resources

If you're serious about getting involved with the innovative ideas at the core of Wolfram Science and NKS, you should consider applying as soon as possible:
http://www.wolframscience.com/summerschool/application.cgi


Todd Rowland, PhD Wolfram Science Summer School Academic Director
Catherine Boucher, PhD Wolfram Science Summer School Program Director



Date: Fri, 10 Jan 2014 22:32:20 -0000 Subject: FWD - Re: Living beings using the Quantum Field

You might remember, some years ago, the first results indicating this possibility - along with Barbara Shipman's brave work *1 (Uni Rochester; more than ten years ago) showing that honeybees also seem to be using the Quantum Field for their extraordinary navigational feats.
Ray


http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/01/140109092008.htm
ScienceDaily - Science News - Quantum Mechanics Explains Efficiency of Photosynthesis

Jan. 9, 2014 - Light-gathering macromolecules in plant cells transfer energy by taking advantage of molecular vibrations whose physical descriptions have no equivalents in classical physics, according to the first unambiguous theoretical evidence of quantum effects in photosynthesis published today in the journal Nature Communications.

The majority of light-gathering macromolecules are composed of chromophores (responsible for the colour of molecules) attached to proteins, which carry out the first step of photosynthesis, capturing sunlight and transferring the associated energy highly efficiently. Previous experiments suggest that energy is transferred in a wave-like manner, exploiting quantum phenomena, but crucially, a non-classical explanation could not be conclusively proved as the phenomena identified could equally be described using classical physics.

Often, to observe or exploit quantum mechanical phenomena systems need to be cooled to very low temperatures. This however does not seem to be the case in some biological systems, which display quantum properties even at ambient temperatures.

Now, a team at UCL have attempted to identify features in these biological systems which can only be predicted by quantum physics, and for which no classical analogues exist.

"Energy transfer in light-harvesting macromolecules is assisted by specific vibrational motions of the chromophores," said Alexandra Olaya-Castro (UCL Physics & Astronomy), supervisor and co-author of the research. "We found that the properties of some of the chromophore vibrations that assist energy transfer during photosynthesis can never be described with classical laws, and moreover, this non-classical behaviour enhances the efficiency of the energy transfer."

Molecular vibrations are periodic motions of the atoms in a molecule, like the motion of a mass attached to a spring. When the energy of a collective vibration of two chromphores matches the energy difference between the electronic transitions of these chromophores a resonance occurs and efficient energy exchange between electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom takes place.

Providing that the energy associated to the vibration is higher than the temperature scale, only a discrete unit or quantum of energy is exchanged. Consequently, as energy is transferred from one chromophore to the other, the collective vibration displays properties that have no classical counterpart.

The UCL team found the unambiguous signature of non-classicality is given by a negative joint probability of finding the chromophores with certain relative positions and momenta. In classical physics, probability distributions are always positive.

"The negative values in these probability distributions are a manifestation of a truly quantum feature, that is, the coherent exchange of a single quantum of energy," explained Edward O'Reilly (UCL Physics & Astronomy), first author of the study.

"When this happens electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom are jointly and transiently in a superposition of quantum states, a feature that can never be predicted with classical physics."

Other biomolecular processes such as the transfer of electrons within macromolecules (like in reaction centres in photosynthetic systems), the structural change of a chromophore upon absorption of photons (like in vision processes) or the recognition of a molecule by another (as in olfaction processes), are influenced by specific vibrational motions.

The results of this research therefore suggest that a closer examination of the vibrational dynamics involved in these processes could provide other biological prototypes exploiting truly non-classical phenomena.

Journal Reference:
Edward J. O'Reilly, Alexandra Olaya-Castro. Non-classicality of the molecular vibrations assisting exciton energy transfer at room temperature.

Nature Communications, 2014; 5 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms4012

---



Date: Thu, 9 Jan 2014 15:32:41 -0000
Subject: Re: Timeline of the Far Future


Thanks Mark - got the image.  Ha! We see the BBC - along with all yes-men scientists - still want the politico-religious "doomed-universe" scenario (see below).  Even the journal `Nature' refused to publish Beatrice Tinsley's `good science' measurement of the density of the Universe (1973*1) - because it implied the Universe would expand infinitely.  That's been confirmed many times now and is just today backed by those BOSS measurements of an `infinite universe' (below).

History tells us that all bad-scientists (and elite journals) seem to be ruled by corrupt religio-politico propaganda needs.
Ray


-----Original Message-----
Sent: Thursday, January 09, 2014 2:40 AM
Subject: Timeline of the Far Future

Waiting for the proton decay. ;)
http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20140105-timeline-of-the-far-future
[cached image here]

---



Date: Thu, 9 Jan 2014 14:10:08 -0000
Subject: FWD - Universe infinite and never-ending in time! (scroll)


Ha! So much for the "end-of universe doom"*1 that politicians / tenured scientists / (and BBC) always want to forecast!  Scroll to " ... it's likely the universe extends forever in space and will go on forever in time.  Our results are consistent with an infinite universe."*2
- Ray


http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/01/140108154456.htm
Science News
Universe Measured to One-Percent Accuracy: Most Precise Calibration Yet of Cosmic 'Standard Ruler'

Jan. 8, 2014 - Today the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) Collaboration announced that BOSS has measured the scale of the universe to an accuracy of one percent. This and future measures at this precision are the key to determining the nature of dark energy.

"One-percent accuracy in the scale of the universe is the most precise such measurement ever made," says BOSS's principal investigator, David Schlegel, a member of the Physics Division of the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab). "Twenty years ago astronomers were arguing about estimates that differed by up to fifty percent. Five years ago, we'd refined that uncertainty to five percent; a year ago it was two percent. One-percent accuracy will be the standard for a long time to come."

BOSS is the largest program in the third Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-III). Since 2009, BOSS has used the Sloan Foundation Telescope at the Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico to record high-precision spectra of well over a million galaxies with redshifts from 0.2 to 0.7, looking back over six billion years into the universe's past. Schlegel says, "We believe the BOSS database includes more redshifts of galaxies than collected by all the other telescopes in the world."

BOSS will continue gathering data until June, 2014. However, says Martin White, a member of Berkeley Lab, a professor of physics and astronomy at the University of California at Berkeley, and chair of the BOSS science survey team, "We've done the analysis now because we have 90 percent of BOSS's final data and we're tremendously excited by the results."

Baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) are the regular clustering of galaxies, whose scale provides a "standard ruler" to measure the evolution of the universe's structure. Accurate measurement dramatically sharpens our knowledge of fundamental cosmological properties, including how dark energy accelerates the expansion of the universe.

Combined with recent measures of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) and supernova measures of accelerating expansion, the BOSS results suggest that dark energy is a cosmological constant whose strength does not vary in space or time. Although unlikely to be a flaw in Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, the authors of the BOSS analysis note that "understanding the physical cause of the accelerated expansion remains one of the most interesting problems in modern physics."

Among other cosmic parameters, says White, the BOSS analysis "also provides one of the best-ever determinations of the curvature of space. The answer is, it's not curved much."

Calling a three-dimensional universe "flat" means its shape is well described by the Euclidean geometry familiar from high school: straight lines are parallel and triangles add up to 180 degrees. Extraordinary flatness means the universe experienced relatively prolonged inflation, up to a decillionth of a second or more, immediately after the big bang.

"One of the reasons we care is that a flat universe has implications for whether the universe is infinite," says Schlegel. "That means -- while we can't say with certainty that it will never come to an end -- it's likely the universe extends forever in space and will go on forever in time. Our results are consistent with an infinite universe."

The BOSS analysis is based on SDSS-III's Data Releases 10 and 11 (DR 10 and DR 11) and has been submitted for publication in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Ripples in a sea of galaxies
The BOSS analysis incorporates spectra of 1,277,503 galaxies and covers 8,509 square degrees of the sky visible from the northern hemisphere. This is the largest sample of the universe ever surveyed at this density. When complete, BOSS will have collected high-quality spectra of 1.3 million galaxies, plus 160,000 quasars and thousands of other astronomical objects, covering 10,000 square degrees.

Periodic ripples of density in visible matter ("baryons," for short) pervade the universe like raindrops on the surface of a pond. Regular galaxy clustering is the direct descendant of pressure waves that moved through the hot plasma of the early universe, which was so hot and dense that particles of light (photons) and particles of matter, including protons and electrons, were tightly coupled together. Invisible dark matter was also part of the mix.

By 380,000 years after the big bang, however, the temperature of the expanding mixture had cooled enough for light to escape, suffusing the newly transparent universe with intense radiation, which in the 13.4 billion years since has continued to cool to today's faint but pervasive cosmic microwave background.

Minute variations in the temperature of the CMB record periodicity in the original density ripples, of which the European Space Agency's Planck satellite has made the most recent and most accurate measures. The same periodicity is preserved in the clustering of the BOSS galaxies, a BAO signal which also mirrors the distribution of underlying dark matter.

Regular clustering at different eras, starting with the CMB, establishes the expansion history of the universe. BOSS collaborator Beth Reid of Berkeley Lab translates the two-dimensional sky coordinates of galaxies, plus their redshifts, into 3-D maps of the density of galaxies in space.

"It's from fluctuations in the density of galaxies in the volume we're looking at that we extract the BAO standard ruler," she says. "To compare different regions of the sky on an equal footing, first we have to undo variations from atmospheric effects or other patterns caused by how we observe the sky with our telescope." The results depend crucially on accurate measures of redshifts, which disclose the galaxies' positions in space and time. But galaxies don't move in lock step.

"When galaxies are close together their mutual gravitational attraction pushes them around and interferes with attempts to measure large-scale structure," Schlegel says. "Their peculiar motion makes it hard to write a formula for overall gravitational growth."

However, says Reid, "We have a very good model for what these distortions look like. The galaxy density field shows you where there are concentrations of matter, and the peculiar velocity field points in the direction of the net effect of all the local over- and under-densities."

"The BOSS data are awe-inspiring," says Martin White, "but many other pieces had to be put into place before we could get what we're after out of the data." Complex computer algorithms were essential for reconciling the inherent uncertainties. "We made thousands of model universes in a computer, and then observed them as BOSS would do and ran our analysis on them to answer the questions of 'What if?'"

By gauging how well their algorithms could analyze these model universes, known as "mocks" and based on catalogues of realistic but artificial galaxies, the experienced BOSS team was able to assess and fine-tune the algorithms when they were applied to the real BOSS data.

The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), based at Berkeley Lab, was critical to the analysis and the creation of the mocks. Says White, "NERSC set aside resources for us to push analyses through quickly when we were up against deadlines. They provide a virtual meeting place where members of the collaboration from all around the world can come together on a shared platform, with both the data and the computational resources they need to perform their research."

BOSS has now provided the most accurate calibration ever of BAO's standard ruler. The universe's expansion history has been measured with unprecedented accuracy during the very stretch of ancient time, over six billion years in the past, when expansion had stopped slowing and acceleration began. But accurate as they are, the new BOSS results are just the beginning. Greater coverage and better resolution in scale are essential to understanding dark energy itself.

The proposed Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), based on an international partnership of nearly 50 institutions led by Berkeley Lab, would enable the Mayall Telescope on Kitt Peak in Arizona to map over 20 million galaxies, plus over three million quasars, in 14,000 square degrees of the northern sky. By filling in the missing eons that BOSS can't reach, DESI could sharpen and extend coverage of the expansion history of the universe from the first appearance of the cosmic background radiation to the present day.

In the meantime, BOSS, ahead of schedule for completion in June, 2014, continues to be the premier instrument for mapping the universe.

Journal Reference:
Lauren Anderson, Eric Aubourg, Stephen Bailey, Florian Beutler, Vaishali Bhardwaj, Michael Blanton, Adam S. Bolton, J. Brinkmann, Joel R. Brownstein, Angela Burden, Chia-Hsun Chuang, Antonio J. Cuesta, Kyle S. Dawson, Daniel J. Eisenstein, Stephanie Escoffier, James E. Gunn, Hong Guo, Shirley Ho, Klaus Honscheid, Cullan Howlett, David Kirkby, Robert H. Lupton, Marc Manera, Claudia Maraston, Cameron K. McBride, Olga Mena, Francesco Montesano, Robert C. Nichol, Sebastian E. Nuza, Matthew D. Olmstead, Nikhil Padmanabhan, Nathalie Palanque-Delabrouille, John Parejko, Will J. Percival, Patrick Petitjean, Francisco Prada, Adrian M. Price-Whelan, Beth Reid, Natalie A. Roe, Ashley J. Ross, Nicholas P. Ross, Cristiano G. Sabiu, Shun Saito, Lado Samushia, Ariel G. Sanchez, David J. Schlegel, Donald P. Schneider, et al.

The clustering of galaxies in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in the Data Release 10 and 11 galaxy samples.

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 2014 [http://arxiv.org/abs/1312.4877]

---



Date:: Tue, 7 Jan 2014 16:34:21 -0000
Subject: FWD - "Science is in a mess


Some of you might like this as it echoes many points you've discussed. Although I'd maybe not go so far as saying we need more Philosophy / Metaphysics - just some sensible scientists. - Ray

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/may/27/physics-philosophy-quantum-relativity-einstein
Philosophy isn't dead yet
Far from having replaced metaphysics, science is in a mess and needs help.
Einstein saw it coming

Raymond Tallis - The Guardian, Monday 27 May 2013

`The attempt to fit consciousness into the material world, usually by identifying it with activity in the brain, has failed dismally.' Photograph: Victor de Schwanberg/Alamy

In 2010 Stephen Hawking, in The Grand Design, announced that philosophy was "dead" because it had "not kept up with modern developments in science, particularly physics". He was not referring to ethics, political theory or aesthetics. He meant metaphysics, the branch of philosophy that aspires to the most general understanding of nature - of space and time, the fundamental stuff of the world. If philosophers really wanted to make progress, they should abandon their armchairs and their subtle arguments, wise up to maths and listen to the physicists.

This view has significant support among philosophers in the English-speaking world. Bristol philosopher James Ladyman, who argues that metaphysics should be naturalised, and who describes the accusation of "scientism" as "badge of honour", is by no means an isolated case.

But there could not be a worse time for philosophers to surrender the baton of metaphysical inquiry to physicists. Fundamental physics is in a metaphysical mess and needs help. The attempt to reconcile its two big theories, general relativity and quantum mechanics, has stalled for nearly 40 years. Endeavours to unite them, such as string theory, are mathematically ingenious but incomprehensible even to many who work with them. This is well known. A better-kept secret is that at the heart of quantum mechanics is a disturbing paradox - the so-called measurement problem, arising ultimately out of the Uncertainty Principle - which apparently demonstrates that the very measurements that have established and confirmed quantum theory should be impossible. Oxford philosopher of physics David Wallace has argued that this threatens to make quantum mechanics incoherent which can be remedied only by vastly multiplying worlds.

Beyond these domestic problems there is the failure of physics to accommodate conscious beings. The attempt to fit consciousness into the material world, usually by identifying it with activity in the brain, has failed dismally, if only because there is no way of accounting for the fact that certain nerve impulses are supposed to be conscious (of themselves or of the world) while the overwhelming majority (physically essentially the same) are not. In short, physics does not allow for the strange fact that matter reveals itself to material objects (such as physicists).

And then there is the mishandling of time. The physicist Lee Smolin's recent book, Time Reborn, links the crisis in physics with its failure to acknowledge the fundamental reality of time. Physics is predisposed to lose time because its mathematical gaze freezes change. Tensed time, the difference between a remembered or regretted past and an anticipated or feared future, is particularly elusive. This worried Einstein: in a famous conversation, he mourned the fact that the present tense, "now", lay "just outside of the realm of science".

Recent attempts to explain how the universe came out of nothing, which rely on questionable notions such as spontaneous fluctuations in a quantum vacuum, the notion of gravity as negative energy, and the inexplicable free gift of the laws of nature waiting in the wings for the moment of creation, reveal conceptual confusion beneath mathematical sophistication. They demonstrate the urgent need for a radical re-examination of the invisible frameworks within which scientific investigations are conducted. We need to step back from the mathematics to see how we got to where we are now. In short, to un-take much that is taken for granted.

Perhaps even more important, we should reflect on how a scientific image of the world that relies on up to 10 dimensions of space and rests on ideas, such as fundamental particles, that have neither identity nor location, connects with our everyday experience. This should open up larger questions, such as the extent to which mathematical portraits capture the reality of our world - and what we mean by "reality". The dismissive "Just shut up and calculate!" to those who are dissatisfied with the incomprehensibility of the physicists' picture of the universe is simply inadequate. "It is time" physicist Neil Turok has said, "to connect our science to our humanity, and in doing so to raise the sights of both". This sounds like a job for a philosophy not yet dead.

---



Date: Wed, 18 Dec 2013 17:35:44 -0000
Subject: FWD - "If there is no event horizon, there are no black holes."


Ha! Some folk know I have strong doubts (disbelief) about so-called "black holes" (maybe check "no black holes perceptions" in Google or "black holes don't exist" for other sites), and, if the "event horizon test" is rigorous and truthful, I fully expect that "black holes" will be disproved.
Ray


http://phys.org/wire-news/148732793/was-einstein-right-scientists-to-image-event-horizon-of-black-ho.html
PhysOrg - Was Einstein right? Scientists to image event horizon of black hole
December 17th, 2013

The European Research Council (ERC) has awarded 14 million euros to a team of European astrophysicists to construct the first accurate image of a black hole. The team will test the predictions of current theories of gravity, including Einstein's general theory of relativity. The funding is provided in the form of a synergy grant, the largest and most competitive type of grant of the ERC.

The team, led by three principal investigators - Heino Falcke, Radboud University Nijmegen; Michael Kramer, Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie; and Luciano Rezzolla, Goethe University in Frankfurt - hopes to measure the shadow cast by the event horizon of the black hole in the center of the Milky Way, find new radio pulsars near this black hole, and combine these measurements with advanced computer simulations of the behavior of light and matter around black holes as predicted by theories of gravity. They will combine several telescopes around the globe to peer into the heart of our own galaxy, which hosts a mysterious radio source called Sagittarius A* which is considered to be the central supermassive black hole.

Synergy grants are awarded by the ERC on the basis of scientific excellence in an intricate and highly competitive selection procedure. The grants have a maximum limit of 15 million euros and require the collaboration of 2-4 principal investigators. In the current selection round the ERC honored 13 out of 449 funding proposals, which corresponds to a success rate of less than 3%. Proposals were submitted from all areas of European science. This is the first time an astrophysics proposal has been awarded.

The Project in Depth - BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes

Black Holes
Black holes are notoriously elusive with a gravitational field so large that even light cannot escape their grip. The team plans to make an image of the event horizon - the border around a black hole which light can enter, but not leave.

"While most astrophysicists believe black holes exists, nobody has actually ever seen one," says Heino Falcke, professor in radio astronomy at Radboud University in Nijmegen and ASTRON, the Netherlands. "The technology is now advanced enough that we can actually image black holes and check if they truly exist as predicted: If there is no event horizon, there are no black holes."

Measure the Tiniest Shadow
So, if black holes are black and are hard to catch on camera, where should one look? The scientists want to peer into the heart of our own galaxy, which hosts a mysterious radio source called Sagittarius A*. The object is known to have a mass of around 4 million times the mass of the Sun and is considered to be the central supermassive black hole of the Milky Way.

As gaseous matter is attracted towards the event horizon by the black hole's gravitational attraction, strong radio emission is produced before the gas disappears. The event horizon should then cast a dark shadow on that bright emission. Given the huge distance to the center of the Milky Way, the shadow is equivalent to the size of an apple on the Moon seen from Earth.

However, by combining high-frequency radio telescopes around the world, in a technique called very long baseline interferometry, or VLBI, even such a tiny feature is in principle detectable. Falcke first proposed this experiment 15 years ago, and now an international effort is forming to build a global "Event Horizon Telescope" to realize it. Falcke is convinced: "With this grant from the ERC and the excellent expertise in Europe, we will be able to make it happen together with our international partners."

Find More Radio Pulsars
In addition, the group wants to use the same radio telescopes to find and measure pulsars around the very same black hole. Pulsars are rapidly spinning neutron stars, which can be used as highly accurate natural clocks in space. "A pulsar around a black hole would be extremely valuable," explains Michael Kramer, managing director of the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie in Bonn. "They allow us to determine the deformation of space and time caused by black holes and measure their properties with unprecedented precision." However, while radio pulsars are ubiquitous in our Milky Way, surprisingly none had been found in the center of the Milky Way for decades. Only recently Kramer and his team found the very first radio pulsar around Sagittarius A*. "We suspect there are many more radio pulsars, and if they are there we will find them," says Kramer.

Behavior of Light and Matter
But how will scientists be really sure that there is a black hole in our Milky Way and not something else that behaves in a very similar way? To answer this question, the scientists will combine the information from the black hole shadow and from the motion of pulsars and stars around Sagittarius A* with detailed computer simulations of the behavior of light and matter around black holes as predicted by theory.

"We have made enormous progress in computational astrophysics in recent years," states Luciano Rezzolla, professor of theoretical astrophysics at the Goethe University in Frankfurt and head of the gravitational-wave modeling group at the Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik. "We can now calculate very precisely how space and time are warped by the immense gravitational fields of a black hole, and determine how light and matter propagate around black holes," he remarks. "Einstein's general theory of relativity is the best theory of gravity we know, but it is not the only one. We will use these observations to find out if black holes, one of the most cherished astrophysical objects, exist or not. Finally, we have the opportunity to test gravity in a regime that until recently belonged to the realm of science fiction; it will be a turning point in modern science," says Rezzolla.
Provided by Max Planck Society

---



Date: Tue, 10 Dec 2013 09:35:43 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Wolfram Science Summer School 2014


We are pleased to announce the 12th annual Wolfram Science Summer School:
http://www.wolframscience.com/summerschool

You are invited to apply to the three-week, tuition-free summer program, to be held in Boston, Massachusetts from June 29 to July 18, 2014.

The Wolfram Science Summer School (formerly the NKS Summer School) is hosted by Wolfram Research, makers of Mathematica and the computational knowledge engine Wolfram|Alpha, and Stephen Wolfram, world-renowned author of "A New Kind of Science" (NKS).

We are looking for highly motivated individuals who want to get involved with original research at the frontiers of science. Our participants come from many diverse backgrounds, but share a common passion to discover and explore cutting-edge ideas.

Over the past 11 years, they have included graduate students, undergraduates, professors, industry professionals, artists, and even a few exceptional high school students. If accepted to the Summer School, you will work directly with others in the Wolfram Science community, including Stephen Wolfram and a staff of instructors who have made significant contributions to NKS and Wolfram|Alpha. You will develop your own original project that could become the foundation of published papers or your thesis.

Take a look at the lecture notes from previous years to get a sense of what topics will be covered:
http://www.wolframscience.com/summerschool/resources

If you're serious about getting involved with the innovative ideas at the core of Wolfram Science and NKS, you should consider applying as soon as possible:
http://www.wolframscience.com/summerschool/application.cgi


Todd Rowland, PhD Wolfram Science Summer School Academic Director
Catherine Boucher, PhD Wolfram Science Summer School Program Director



Date: Fri, 6 Dec 2013 00:03:46 -0000
Subject: Re: Quantum Physics Woo


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8DGgvE6hLAU

Right - seen a few of his Youtube presentations and he's pretty good at getting down to brass tacks.  And he's right about that `entanglement' and instantaneous communication across arbitrary distance - maybe across the universe.  That _does_ give physicists sleepless nights.

However, even the best scientists often seem unaware that we _can_ see signs of quantum weirdness in our macro-world (i.e. the full size human world).

Take a coin and spin it on a table-top. It stands upright while spinning strongly (like a uni-cyclist can stand upright while only moving the cycle-wheel a bit back and forth).  By all the rules of classical physics (Newtonian & Einsteinian) that's impossible!  So what's giving the coin or the unicyclist that extra inertia to keep upright with just a little gyratory movement?

That's where Einstein failed in his Relativity.  He had to fall back on Mach's statement that all inertial reactions - like the spinning coin, the unicyclist, or you being pressed back in your seat as you accelerate a car - were due to something `outside the system' - and Mach said that had to be the influence of the fixed stars - i.e. the mass of the rest of the universe.  [He said that because the evidence of `centrifugal forces' points that way.]

But if that's true then that universal mass (at an average distance of half the radius of the whole universe - including the part we can't see) is affecting the spinning coin or the uni-cyclist _instantaneously_ over huge astronomical distances.

And we can see that happening on our table-top. But big-science doesn't like to talk about it - because it's unexplainable.
Ray


-----Original Message-----
From: Mark M*****
Sent: Thursday, December 05, 2013 11:15 PM
Subject: Quantum Physics Woo


I like the mix of Irish and Aussie accents.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8DGgvE6hLAU



Date: Mon, 18 Nov 2013 15:25:58 -0200
Subject: Re: FWD - "Largest Discovered Structure in the Universe Contradicts Big-Bang Theory Cosmology


Well, this is only the latest `large structure' to contradict the big-bang theory.  Recall the `Francis Filament' of a decade or so ago?

But our defensive big-sci `experts' are sitting on their hands - too many reputations could be damaged.
Ray


http://tinyurl.com/kj86hty
Daily Galaxy.Com - November 17, 2013
The Largest Discovered Structure in the Universe Contradicts Big-Bang Theory Cosmology

"While it is difficult to fathom the scale of this "large quasar group" (LQG), we can say quite definitely it is the largest structure ever seen in the entire universe," said Dr Clowes of University of Central Lancashire'sJeremiah Horrocks Institute. "This is hugely exciting - not least because it runs counter to our current understanding of the scale of the universe. Even traveling at the speed of light, it would take 4 billion years to cross.

This is significant not just because of its size but also because it challenges the Cosmological Principle, which has been widely accepted since Einstein. Our team has been looking at similar cases which add further weight to this challenge and we will be continuing to investigate these fascinating phenomena."

This LQG challenges the Cosmological Principle, the assumption that the universe, when viewed at a sufficiently large scale, looks the same no matter where you are observing it from. The modern theory of cosmology is based on the work of Albert Einstein, and depends on the assumption of the Cosmological Principle. The principle is assumed, but has never been demonstrated observationally 'beyond reasonable doubt.'

Quasars are the nuclei of galaxies from the early days of the universe that undergo brief periods of extremely high brightness that make them visible across huge distances. These periods are 'brief' in astrophysics terms but actually last 10-100 million years. Since 1982 it has been known that quasars tend to group together in clumps or 'structures' of surprisingly large sizes, forming large quasar groups or LQGs.

To give some sense of scale, our galaxy, the Milky Way, is separated from its nearest neighbor, the Andromeda Galaxy, by about 0.75 Megaparsecs (Mpc) or 2.5 million light-years. Whole clusters of galaxies can be 2-3 Mpc across but LQGs can be 200 Mpc or more across. Based on the Cosmological Principle and the modern theory of cosmology, calculations suggest that astrophysicists should not be able to find a structure larger than 370 Mpc. Clowes' newly discovered LQG however has a typical dimension of 500 Mpc. But because it is elongated, its longest dimension is 1200 Mpc (or 4 billion light years) - some 1600 times larger than the distance from the Milky Way to Andromeda.

The team published their results in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

---



Date: Sun, 17 Nov 2013 21:27:36 -0000
Subject: Space probe Gaia searches for galaxy's dark energy


Ha!  Only the other day (see below) we heard that the most sensitive detector has more or less disproved the existence of `dark matter' - as some of us had said much earlier.

And the only reason for the invention of dark energy was to explain the fact that so much (fake) dark matter wasn't collapsing the universe, which is actually expanding at an accelerating rate!

In the real world the observed mass of the universe (and its calculated density - which was suppressed by journals for a while *1) are exactly right for the observed expansion, and its increase.  Without any `dark matter' _or_ `dark energy'!
Ray


http://www.theguardian.com/science/2013/nov/16/gaia-milky-way-space-probe
Space probe Gaia searches for galaxy's dark energy Robot craft will reveal how Milky Way began and warn Earth of asteroid collisions

The Observer, Saturday 16 November 2013 11.45 GMT
European scientists are preparing to launch a probe that will transform our understanding of our galaxy. The spacecraft, called Gaia, will carry the world's biggest, most accurate camera which it will use to pinpoint more than a billion stars with unprecedented precision and create a 3D map of the Milky Way.

The vast amounts of data generated by the £2bn robot spacecraft - built by the European Space Agency - will reveal how the Milky Way formed and how it will evolve over the next few billion years. In addition, Gaia will locate hundreds of thousands of distant planets in orbit around other stars; survey asteroids that orbit close to our own Sun, giving warnings of any on a collision course with Earth; and provide clues about dark energy, the mysterious force that is thought to permeate space and which is pushing the universe apart.
(more at page ...)

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Date: Sat, 2 Nov 2013 07:28:49 -0000
Subject: FWD - "What dark matter isn't ..."


This article, like many `consensus-science' reports in the media, makes several statements that are misleading - to put it harshly: they're untrue.

In reality `dark matter' was invented - not discovered or even theoretically calculated.  And it was invented because big-science is afraid to admit the possibility that `gravity' might well change in value (and even in `polarity' - by becoming a repulsive force) at larger and larger cosmic scales.
Ray


www.economist.com/news/science-and-technology/21588829-physicists-are-learning-more-about-what-dark-matter-isnt-will-help-them-find
"Absence of evidence, or evidence of absence?
Physicists are learning more about what dark matter isn't.  That will help them find out what it is  Nov 2nd 2013  On October 30th the team running the Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment, in a mine 1,500 metres below South Dakota, announced the results of their first three months spent hunting for dark matter:  nothing.

That is big news.  It contradicts evidence from several other experiments, which offered hints that dark matter had been spotted.  And LUX is the most sensitive dark-matter detector yet built.
(much more at page ...)

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Date: Thu, 31 Oct 2013 08:40:34 -0000 Subject: FWD - "Scimitar Cats + Arrow-heads

Well, well.  Read the article (first one below) and did a double take.  Then confirmed the suspicion by checking the data (next two below) and, if that guy found arrow-heads in the same stratum as the scimitar-cat - then it would mean `people' were shooting arrows [in South America] around 1.5 to 2 million years ago!

Maybe they're just not telling us because it would be too embarrassing for too many professors still in post.  Wouldn't be the first time.
Ray


http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/oct/30/venezuelan-fossils-ice-age-sabre-toothed-tiger
"Venezuelan fossils shed light on ice age
...
The tiger or scimitar cat, Homotherium venezuelensis, has proved Rincón's most significant discovery so far because it pushes back the date, by more than a million years, by which time a wave of mega-fauna was originally thought to have appeared in South America.
...
The answer to why these giant creatures disappeared could rest on one of his team's recent discoveries: arrowheads. Their presence would mean that humans lived and hunted in the American continent earlier than thought. "We always find deposits of mega-fauna and, on occasion, we find arrowheads next to them," said Rincón. "We are still working on that."
-
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02724634.2011.550366#.UnITqfk9LT8
"Here we report a new species of Machairodontinae Homotherium venezuelensis, ...
The age of the deposit has been interpreted as early to middle Pleistocene by thermoluminescence dating"
-
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pleistocene
The Pleistocene is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's recent period of repeated glaciations.

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Date: Fri, 18 Oct 2013 18:06:49 +0100
Subject: FWD - "Most diagnoses are fake - like the vaccines and pills


So the cynics (like some of us) were right all along, most "psychiatry" is fake - and dangerous - Ray

http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/open-page/inventing-diseases-to-sell-drugs/article5209896.ece
October 7, 2013
Inventing diseases to sell drugs
PROFESSOR B.M. HEGDE

I have known of many tricks of the trade of the pharmaceutical lobby but not this one till very recently although I had a hunch that this could be there.  At the same time, I am happy that there are people with some conscience pricking them before death at least.  Of late, when one opens any newspaper or journal there are articles on a recent disease in children by name ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) and our paediatricians bend over backwards to make the diagnosis and start our children on dangerous chemical drugs at that tender age.

Now comes the bombshell. American psychiatrist, Dr. Leon Eisenberg (87), made a statement to a German magazine, Der Spiegel, a couple of months before his death that ADHD is a fictitious disease which they put together for the benefit of drug companies in the new disease classification in the American Psychiatry Association's DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Diseases).

In his book, Inventing Diseases, Professor Jerg Blech, another German, gives a graphic description of hypertension having been discovered as a disease needing drug treatment through the German plan of Well Man clinics in nice air-conditioned vans, with beautiful nurses, parked around Church squares and shopping malls to give people a free check-up, a dangerous activity when one feels healthy and happy.

Any one that walks in becomes a patient.  Actually, it was Leon Eisenberg who once asked his new brilliant resident who is a patient?  Pat came the reply: A man/woman who sees any doctor becomes a patient!  What rattled Leon further was the answer to his second query: When does that person become normal again? `Rarely ever, if ever, was the answer.'  Maybe, this is the reason that pricked his conscience.

There is no proof or test to find out exactly what chemicals are `out of balance' in the brain for ADHD or any other disorder.  Most of those drugs are unnecessary as they are known to provoke suicide and homicide.  `Since that DMS conference in 1968, Dr. Eisenberg's contribution to mental disease by invention and committee consensus has resulted in drugging millions of children from preschool age through high school.  It is currently estimated that up to 20 % of children from nursery school and kindergarten through high school and in foster homes have been prescribed Ritalin.  Commonly prescribed for kids `diagnosed' or better still, labelled with ADHD, Ritalin was tested a little over a decade ago by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL).  The BNL study determined that Ritalin is pharmacologically similar to cocaine with perhaps even worse brain damaging potential,' writes Mike Adams in his recent blog.

Dr. Irwin Savodnik, Assistant Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at the UCLA School of Medicine, was of the opinion that `the very vocabulary of psychiatry is now defined at all levels by the pharmaceutical industry.'  This racket has been going on ever since and has been able to get even health insurance to cover their dark deeds.

Vaccination is another fertile ground for the industry where most of what it sells has dubious value.  Lead researcher, Dr. Diane Harper, who was instrumental in creating Gardasil, and cervarix, admitted back in 2009 that the vaccines were essentially useless and more dangerous than the very conditions they were hailed as preventing and treating?  A 2009 article published by CBS News, in fact, which is still available online, reveals the truth about these vaccines.

One particular quote, which was pulled out, using the Wayback Machine, reveals that both Gardasil and Cervarix do nothing to prevent cervical cancer, which is their primary claim to fame.  `The rate of serious adverse events [from Gardasil] is on a par with the death rate of cervical cancer,' admitted Dr. Harper at that time, refuting a pro-Gardasil piece published by Slate. `Gardasil has been associated with at least as many serious adverse events as there are deaths from cervical cancer developing each year.'

Dr. Harper dropped a bombshell when she told reporters that the public health benefit of getting vaccinated with Gardasil `is nothing,' adding the vaccine has led to `no reduction in cervical cancers.'  She quickly withdrew her statements saying the media has distorted her story, almost on the lines of Indian politicians!

Dr. Harper went on to admit that deaths from Gardasil had been underreported by the U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which has given the illusion that the vaccine is somehow safe.  The vast majority of HPV infections resolve themselves on their own within a year and nearly all of them within two years.  She also admitted that an extremely small number of people experience symptoms from infection.  Millions of young girls and now even boys, some as young as nine years old, have received the vaccine since 2006.  Some of what she said then is still on line.

Recently, Dr. Puliyal from New Delhi, an expert in this field, exposed the myth of another childhood vaccine, the pentavalent vaccine.  But that does not seem to stir the conscience of our greedy powers that be!  When I just retired as Vice-Chancellor of Manipal University in 2003, the Deputy Commissioner of Udupi district wanted me to retract an article of mine on polio dangers for malnourished children, which information had, by then, even entered the British Pharmacopoeia.  As I refused to do that, he made my colleagues in the university release a paper statement that `I had forgotten my medicine and people should not give heed to my article as the whole university was fully with the government in vaccinating even the malnourished children!'  They obliged him, I cannot but pity those statements and our commitment to truth in medical science.

We can go on and on till the cows come home on the fraud in medical research but I highly recommend the following article in the Atlantic Magazine of November 20th, 2010 by Davis Freedman on the important topic:  Lies, Damned Lies and Medical Research.  The article is a result of a long interview with Professor John PA Ioannidis of Stanford University, who has been pioneering the work to expose these frauds successfully. He is a much respected member of the American medical scene.

`Honesty is the best policy when there is money in it.'  Mark Twain.

(The writer is a cardiologist and former Vice-Chancellor of Manipal University. His email: hegdebm@gmail.com) ---




Date: Fri, 18 Oct 2013 17:49:58 +0100
Subject: FWD - Ioannidis said "much, maybe most published sci-research is just wrong"


Ha!  What most of us have thought is now proved true - Ray

http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg22029391.500-neuroscience-wrongs-will-make-a-right.html
Neuroscience wrongs will make a right
18 October 2013
The history of scientific discovery suggests that accepting most neuroscience is unsound is a big step towards a better understanding of the brain

THE idea of putting a dead salmon in a brain scanner would be funny if it were not so serious.  When Craig Bennett of the University of California, Santa Barbara, tried it in 2009, he wasn't expecting to find anything - he was just doing test runs on the machine.  But when he looked at the data he got a shock.  The fish's brain and spinal column were showing signs of neural activity.

There was no such activity, of course.  The salmon was dead. But the signal was there, and it confirmed what many had been quietly muttering for years:  there's something fishy about neuroscience.

When fMRI brain scanners were invented in the early 1990s, scientists and the general public were seduced by the idea of watching the brain at work.  It seems we got carried away. The field is plagued by false positives and other problems.  It is now clear that the majority - perhaps the vast majority - of neuroscience findings are as spurious as brain waves in a dead fish.

That seems shocking, and not just because neuroscience has appeared to be one of the most productive research areas of recent years.  Some of those dodgy findings are starting to make their way into the real world, such as in ongoing debates about the use of fMRI evidence in court.

Some historical perspective is helpful here, however.  The problems are not exclusive to neuroscience.  In 2005, epidemiologist John Ioannidis published a bombshell of a paper called "Why most published research findings are false".  In it he catalogued a litany of failures that undermine the reliability of science in general.  His analysis concluded that at least half, and possibly a large majority, of published research is wrong.

Ioannidis might have expected anger and denial, but his paper was well received.  Scientists welcomed the chance to debate the flaws in their practices and work to put them right.

Things are by no means perfect now.  Scientists are under immense pressure to make discoveries, so negative findings often go unreported, experiments are rarely replicated and data is often "tortured until it confesses".  But - thanks in no small part to Ioannidis's brutal honesty - all of those issues are now out in the open and science is working to address them.  The kerfuffle over neuroscience is just the latest chapter in a long-running saga.

Genetics went through a similar "crisis" about a decade ago and has since matured into one of the most reliable sciences of all.  The fact that neuroscience is facing up to its problems is the sign of a young discipline growing up.  Some of the flashy discoveries about brain areas "for" love or religion will go the way of genes "for" intelligence, or whatever.  But neuroscience will be more nuanced and powerful for it.

This article appeared in print under the headline "First, get it wrong"




Date: Thu, 10 Oct 2013 10:33:25 +0100
Subject: FWD - ""Inside the Pallin glacier tunnel, exposed by melting ice - video" (3 mins)


Interesting. This Pallin Glacier Tunnel is quite large and is now able to be explored because the snow and ice that covered the entrance has recently melted.

BUT, as Professor Per Holmlund (Glaciologist - Stockholm University) points out at the beginning of the vid (0:45s), only 50/60 years ago it was fully open and accessible.

That seems to confirm other records showing serious global cooling began around 1946/7 and continued to around 1977/1980.  Only then did temperatures begin a slight upturn, moving towards those of the fairly recent past. - Ray

[BUT the Earth is still much colder than it was only a few thousand years ago.  We've got a long way to go before you can cultivate vineyards in Scotland and North Yorkshire, as they did during the `Medieval Warm Period' and earlier in the `Roman Warm Period'.  Maybe check the deep-past records at glacials.html#clear ]


www.theguardian.com/environment/video/2013/oct/10/inside-pallin-glacier-tunnel-melting-ice-video
"Inside the Pallin glacier tunnel, exposed by melting ice - video" (3 mins)
---



Date: Fri, 13 Sep 2013 07:59:59 +0100
Subject: FWD - "Dumbed-down BBC" is confirmed


Ha!  Only the other day was reading Lisa Jardine's whistle-blow about BBC bosses dumbing-down sci-progs, because they're all celeb-addicts and arty-farty `humanities' graduates who don't know Einstein but swoon over Weinstein.

Today at about 6:40ish (a.m.) heard the BBC presenter, on so-called quality Radio4, telling me the Voyager spacecraft had "left the Solar System".

Ha!  It hasn't - and won't for many, many decades.  That's because the Solar System is a relatively huge gravitational entity extending to the Oort Cloud, billions of miles ahead of Voyager.

In fact, instrument readings say Voyager has just penetrated, or gone beyond, the `Heliosphere' [a plasma/radiation entity] - a much smaller bubble created by the Sun's radiation pushing against galactic influences and pressures.

Ray


N.b. - distances in NASA's `Heliosphere' chart are in AU (Earth-Sun distance), so we can see the Voyagers are only 1/1,000th of the way to the outer edge of the Solar System.  [Those charts, and background info are also at these Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 Wiki pages]




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