IV. Every tax ought to be so contrived as both to take out and to keep out of the pockets of the people as little as possible over and above what it brings into the public treasury of the state.
A tax may take out or keep out of the pockets of the people a great deal more than it brings into the public treasury, in the four following ways.
First, the levying of it may require a great number of officers, whose salaries may eat up the greater part of the produce of the tax, and whose perquisites may impose another additional tax upon the people.
Secondly, it may obstruct the industry of the people, and discourage them from applying to certain branches of business which might give maintenance and employment to great multitudes. While it obligates the people to pay, it may thus diminish, or perhaps destroy, some of the funds which might enable them more easily to do so.
Thirdly, by the forfeitures and other penalties which those unfortunate individuals incur who attempt unsuccessfully to evade the tax, it may frequently ruin them, and thereby put an end to the benefit which the community might have received from the employment of their capitals.
An injudicious tax offers a great temptation to smuggling. But the penalties of smuggling must rise in proportion to the temptation.
The law, contrary to all the ordinary principles of justice, first creates the temptation, and then punishes those who yield to it; and it commonly enhances the punishment, too, in proportion to the very circumstances which ought certainly to alleviate it, the temptation to commit the crime.
Fourthly, by subjecting the people to the frequent visits and the odious examination of the tax-gatherers, it may expose them to much unnecessary trouble, vexation, and oppression;
and though vexation is not, strictly speaking, expense, it is certainly equivalent to the expense at which every man would be willing to redeem himself from it.
It is in some or other of these four different ways that taxes are frequently so much more burdensome to the people than they are beneficial to the sovereign.