World-wide, you find two motifs in native legend, from every continent: that -
i) there were several `attempts to make humans', typically using different materials - each attempt failing due to lack of vision / intelligence, lack of speech, or (once) too much intelligence / vision. (See below).
ii) primitive humans received practical teaching from one or more `visitors' whose appearance was different from any known humans - sometimes overtly `alien beings'. Also, that some wisdom imparted has been forgotten, or is not yet understood.
note: until very recent times these early accounts were lost to us: being either undiscovered, or suppressed by later dogma. I.e. the post-cataclysm groups - Greeks, Romans, western Europe - developed in ignorance of their own ancient past.
note2: oddly, some widely different sources give a cycle of 12,000 years (or 13,000 in some) - which happens to be the time since the Ice Age, and about half the precessional cycle;
Zoroastrianism gives two such cycles: i.e. almost one complete precesssion;
Hindu Mahabharata also has a grouping of 12,000 years;
Jainism tells of 6 periods of improvement and 6 periods of degeneration.
note3: traditions of past endings give successive causes as `Impact' (or `Movement') / `Fire' / `Ice' or `Flood'. They mainly say the most recent was of `Flood' and some forecasts say the next cataclysm will again be caused by `Movement'
The Olmec - Maya - Toltec - Mixtec - Aztec (mingled because groups are said to have mutual inheritance from Olmec) creation myth said that there have already been four attempts by the gods to create a human race.
The first three have been destroyed as unworthy after each had been allowed a `long count' period of days (about 5,000 years) to prove themselves, but failed.
The fourth try, using maize, flour and water to create present humans, is said to have taken place around 3133 BCE.
Or, in another version, the god Quetzalcoatl's recipe for the new humans was the ground up bones of the previous race - who had all been killed by an end-time Flood.
E.G. Richards - below - has updated or pinpointed the event to Wednesday, 8th Sept. 3114 BCE (Julian cal.)
That `long count' is almost through. The gods' fifth Judgment Day is calculated to fall on 23rd - 24th December 2012 CE
That correlation of the Mayan long count was successfully unravelled by Joseph Goodman, a Californian newspaper editor in 1905, by painstaking cross-checking of the Mayan codices and the Spanish colonial records.
[Accepted - and recently confirmed - it is now known as the GMT correlation (Goodman-Martinez-Thompson)]
(From `Lost Languages' by Andrew Robinson, 2002, CN 106839)
It is now thought that the `long count' system of date definition was `invented' sometime before first century BCE, and by the Olmecs rather than Mayans.
That last snippet came from E.G. Richards' fact filled book "Mapping Time - the Calendar and its History" ISBN 0-19-286205-7
Richards also notes interesting matches between the names of days of 20 day series of the Maya / Aztecs, called the tzolkin or veintena - and those used across the Pacific.
I.e one Mayan / Aztec `veintena' series of animal day-names is the same list as used for a lunar zodiac in South East Asia.
Also Richards points to fact that some longer calendrical cycles, of both Chinese and Mayans, had the same number of years.
Also see Dr. Mike Xu's TRANSPACIFIC CONTACTS page
Following the Greek `dark age' (maybe 1150 BCE? to 850 BCE?), Hesiod the poet began investigating Greek mythology / religion. He found a myth of Four Great Ages - of gold, silver, bronze, and iron, each Age inhabited by a separate human type.
[Either Hesiod or someone else later added another `Age' - of Greek Heroes - but we'll discount that as early nationalism].
The Sanskrit `Mahabharata', of India, along with the Celts (Irish & Welsh), of Europe, identically describes Four Great Ages. As does the Persian Avestan story of the `Dream of Zoro-Aster' which gives Gold, Silver, Steel & Iron Ages - as did the `Dream of Nebuchadnezzar'.
Historians tend to think these `myths' are derived from a Mesopotamian pre-historic source. They probably haven't linked them with the Americas, which could have received pre-historic visitors from Europe, Middle-East and Africa as result of a catastrophe, either pre- or post-Ice Age.
In addition to the Olmec - Maya - Toltec - Mixtec - Aztec account of four attempts by the gods to create a human race, Hopi record-keepers also have a `Four Great Ages' legend - see (wiki ref.); and the Navaho have `Four Previous Worlds' myth, see www.mythome.org/creataml.html.
"There was a time when all was darkness and water, and from the midst thereof issued spontaneously monstrous animals and the most peculiar figures: men with two wings, and others with four, with two faces or two heads, one of a man, the other of a woman, on one body, and with the two sexes together; men with goats' legs and goats' horns, or with horses' hoofs; others with the hinder parts of a horse and the foreparts of a man, like the hippocentaurs.
There were, besides, human-headed bulls, dogs with four bodies and fishes' tails, horses with dogs' heads, animals with the head and body of a horse and the tail of a fish, other quadrupeds in which all sorts of animal shapes were confused together, fishes, reptiles, serpents.
A woman named Omoroca was, or presided over, this creation;
Things being in this condition, Belos (Bel-Marduk) came upon the scene and cut the woman in half; of the lower part of her body he made the earth, and of the upper half the heavens, and all the creatures that were in her disappeared.
Belos then ... separated the heavens and the earth, and ordered the world; and all animated beings who were not able to endure the action of light perished.
Then Belos also formed the stars, the sun, the moon, and the five planets."
Bards and scribes personalized all phenomena, including planets, as male or female beings with `human' characteristics.
Keeping that in mind - the account could be a description of the impact event that we've only recently realized has actually happened : -
the collision of another planet with Earth (or Mars? or more probably Venus),
the creation of the Moon from the scraped-off continental-stuff (ejected by collision), and subsequent re-timing of Earth's orbit and seasons.
[Marduk = Mars; Omoroca is sometimes recognised as the ocean or (later?) the moon (after the "break-up" of old Earth? or the capture of the (new) Moon?)]
The chronological history of Babylonia, according to Berosus, was as follows:
The first period, reaching from the Creation to the Flood, is said to have included ten reigns, of 432,000 years in total.
"At Babylon there was a great resort of people of various nations, who inhabited Chaldaea, and lived in a lawless manner like the beasts of the field.
In the first year there appeared, from that part of the Erythraean sea which borders upon Babylonia, an animal, by name Oannes, whose whole body (according to the account of Apollodorus) was that of a fish, that under the fish's head he had another head, with feet also below, similar to those of a man, subjoined to the fish's tail.
His voice too, and language, was articulated and human, and a representation of him is preserved even to this day.
This Being was accustomed to pass the day among men; but took no food at that season; and he gave them an insight into letters and sciences, and arts of every kind.
He taught them to construct cities, to found temples, to compile laws, and explained to them the principles of geometrical knowledge.
He made them distinguish the seeds of the earth, and shewed them how to collect the fruits; in short, he instructed them in everything which could tend to soften manners and humanize their lives.
From that time, nothing material has been added by way of improvement to his instructions.
And when the sun had set, this being Oannes, retired again into the sea, and passed the night in the deep; for he was amphibious."
Berosus, from - "CHALDEAN LEGENDS"
"The Flood lasts for seven days and seven nights, and finally light returns to the earth. Utnapishtim opens a window and the entire earth has been turned into a flat ocean; all humans have been turned to stone [fossilised?]. Utnapishtim then falls to his knees and weeps."
"Utnapishtim's boat comes to rest on the top of Mount Nimush; the boat lodges firmly on the mountain peak just below the surface of the ocean and remains there for seven days. On the seventh day:"
"I [Utnapishtim] released a dove from the boat,
It flew off, but circled around and returned,
For it could find no perch.
I then released a swallow from the boat,
It flew off, but circled around and returned,
For it could find no perch.
I then released a raven from the boat,
It flew off, and the waters had receded:
It eats, it scratches the ground, but it does not circle around and return."
That epic was later picked up by the Israelites as Chaps. 6 - 9 of Genesis (from Asimov). But the Babylonian account was itself a `copy' of the Sumerian (Mesopotamian) legend of Atrahasis. and of the Hurrians' (Anatolia c. 3,000 BCE), `flood hero' Nahmizuli. The legends probably descended from the time of the Ubaidians who lived in Mesopotamia, to the south of Anatolia, much earlier, from maybe c. 6,000 BCE [from Ian Wilson's `Before The Flood' (scroll)].
Even the Ancient Greeks, a combination of tribal groups entering the Aegean area sometime before their `Dark Age' (above), had the same story, of Pyrrha and Deucalion.
A long time later, the Greek philosopher Xenophanes (560 - 478 BCE) noted sea-shells and marine fossils in mountain strata, and concluded there had been big changes in sea-level in the past.
Note: the Greeks as a nation were recently emerged from `barbarism' (a Greek word), and had a folk-legend of Phaethon, son of the sun-god, rashly trying to drive the "chariot of the Sun" but crashing it with catastrophic results on Earth. That was the orthodox `explanation' - using superstition as a tool - of any signs of past geological upsets on Earth.
However, the first Greek lawmaker and statesman Solon had recently - c. 560 BCE at Sais, a cosmopolitan city of north-east Nile delta - conferred with the Egyptian priest Sonchis.
This was what Sonchis and his scholars told Solon:-
"O Solon, you [Greeks] are all young in your minds which hold no store of old belief based on long tradition, no knowledge hoary with age"
"The reason is this. There have been, and will be hereafter, many and diverse destructions of mankind, the greatest by fire and water, though other lesser ones are due to countless other causes"
" Thus the story current also in your part of the world, that Phaethon, child of the Sun, once harnessed his father's chariot but could not guide it on his father's course and so burnt up everything on the face of the earth and was himself consumed by the thunderbolt - this legend has the air of a fable; but the truth behind it is a deviation of the bodies that revolve in heaven around the earth and a destruction, occurring at long intervals, of things on the earth by a great conflagration...."
"Any great or noble achievement or otherwise exceptional event that has come to pass, either in your own parts or here or in any place of which we have tidings, has been written down for ages past in records that are preserved in our temples;"
"whereas with you and with other peoples again and again, life [had only just] been enriched with letters and all the other necessities of civilization when once more, after the usual period of years, the torrents from heaven [swept] down like a pestilence, leaving only the rude and unlettered among you"
"And so you start again like children, knowing nothing of what existed in ancient times here or in your own country.... To begin with, your people remembered only one deluge, though there were many earlier;"
"and moreover you do not know that the noblest and bravest race in the world once lived in your country. From a small remnant of their seed you and all your fellow citizens are derived; but you know nothing of it because the survivors for many generations died leaving no word in writing"
Sumer - Babylon
Babylonia inherited the arithmetic (and the same-based weights and measures) of Sumer - and we'd maybe be confused by it. They had a `place system', but it worked on base sixty!
So our number 216 in Babylonian could mean 2 × 602 (7200) + 1 × 60 (60) + 6 × 1 (6) = 7266
note: `could' because they didn't have a "zero" - and in this case it meant you weren't absolutely sure if the numbers weren't one place higher or lower, except by context.
note 2: Sumerian base-60 proved so useful in time-keeping, map-making, surveying and astronomy that it is still used today - 6,000 years later.
Strangest and best of all, they had only two numbers: 1 and 10; arranging them in groups to make individual terms - like 13 would be 10 + 1 + 1 + 1.
That's a sort of binary number system.
The oldest mathematical textbook is Egyptian - by pure luck two papyrus scrolls, a leather / parchment piece and some scraps have been preserved from nearly four thousand years ago.
Their number system would look odd to a modern westerner; tens, hundreds, thousands etc. each had their own `picture' - so 2000 is two lotus flowers -
However, this meant they didn't need a "zero", nor a place-system as we have to use, to distinguish between 222 and 22.2.
Strangest and best of all, their arithmetic was amazingly efficient, because it was centered on the binary series (which recently had to be re-invented for our computers to use).
That is, they knew whole-number multiplication gives an answer made up of one or more numbers of this series 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256 . . . ; the binary series.
So - to multiply 12 by 5 - they'd simply decide whereabouts in the series their "multiplier" (5) fitted, and then kept doubling the "multiplicand" (12) up to there.
In this case they'd do that twice; giving four times twelve = 48 and then (because 5 is an odd number and so you'll also need the original multiplicand) added another 12.
So, 5 × 12 = 48 + 12 = 60.
It works - as your computer knows. And division is equally easy - although they likely used tables for speed.
So Egypt had binary arithmetic and Sumer - Babylon had binary numbers.
Their two systems were efficient and allowed quite advanced calculations - we inherit our 24 hour days from Egypt and our 60 minute hours from Babylon (and seconds & degrees etc.).
[All their mathematical advantages were lost when first the conquering Greeks and then the Romans imposed clumsy `letters acting as numbers' systems - which makes multiplication and division exceedingly difficult - and virtually paralyzed useful mathematics in the West for more than a thousand years, until we finally learned a sensible number system from the Arab / Persian Empire.]
"Elsewhere in the Near East writing is first attested in contexts of record-keeping and accounting, and the indications seem to be that it developed gradually out of a system of numerical notation. No such `pre-history' is convincingly traceable for Egyptian writing. On present evidence, admittedly sparse and possibly very misleading, it appears to come into use almost `ready-made', as it were"
pp. 111 & 112 `Egyptian Hieroglyphs' - by W V Davies. (1990 - The Trustees of The British Museum)
Egyptian Architecture, Science & Technology
"Egyptian science, medicine, mathematics and astronomy were all of an exponentially higher order of refinement and sophistication than modern scholars will acknowledge. The whole of Egyptian civilisation was based on a complete and precise understanding of universal laws ... Moreover, every aspect of Egyptian knowledge seems to have been complete at the very beginning. The sciences, artistic and architectural techniques and the hieroglyphic system show virtually no sign of a period of `development'; indeed, many of the achievements of the earliest dynasties were never surpassed or even equalled later on. This astonishing fact is readily admitted by orthodox Egyptologists, but the magnitude of the mystery it poses is skilfully understated, while its many implications go unmentioned."
John Anthony West, in `Serpent in the Sky'.
Hey! Notice something?
As with the Pyramids & the Sphinx, which might have been built a lot earlier than the `experts' think, more abstract things like mathematics, and even Egyptian hieroglyphs, also seem to start at their best many thousands of years ago and then go down-hill afterwards.
As if humans were floundering with only remnants from an earlier civilization - and had lost their direction, cultural knowledge and drive.
Due to some catastrophe maybe?
And here's an echo of those strangely advanced civilizations, this one from Africa: -
"The Nok civilization appeared in Nigeria around 500 BCE. and mysteriously vanished around 200 CE.
Iron use, in smelting and forging for tools, appears in Nok civilization in Africa by 500 BCE.
Artisans who worked around the Nok used the same material they used for their utility pottery for their model figurines, a coarse grain clay.
Certain statues could reach 1.20 meters, suggesting an excellent control of modeling techniques such as cooking in open air. As many of the statues are hollow, the sculptors took care to maintain an equal thickness in all parts and hollowed out the parts that could have exploded when fired.
This technical skill, like the stylistic control noted in these works, suggests that Nok art could have been the descendant of an already long artistic tradition. Nowhere does one detect experimentation. The characteristics of the style are already precise."
Again an advanced civilization which seemed to start at a zenith of inherited skills - after some catastrophe maybe?
You can check some physical trace of disasters - impacts - deluges at westward#treering and maybe the list at subindex#dark
Recent catastrophe research results reviewed
And there's some other speculation, on the Pharaohs and the Maya, at `Alien Rulers' pages - authority#Mayan and authority4
Most of the historical researches into ancient mathematics and their workings, on this page and maybe on a few others, are from Prof. John McLeish's `Number' (HarperCollins, London 1992 ISBN 0-00-654484-3) - a fascinating book.
BTW - temporary note until best place for this item is found:-
You might be thinking, from Westward & Sphinx & maybe other pages, that there's already plenty of (suppressed) geological, archeological and mythological evidence which suggests earlier advanced civilization. And that there were violent terminations - one occurring somewhere around 12 - 13,000 years ago!
Well, this is only a hint, but it's quite suggestive -
Gerard Kremer (1512-1594), known to us as Mercator the Map-maker, was assembling his masterpiece, the first "Atlas" (in 3 volumes - last one finished by his son in 1595), and accompanied it with a "Chronologia" or time-line of the World.
However, the "Chronologia" was criticized by Jean Bodin (1530 - 1596); (French juror - `The Witch-finder of Paris') in `Methodus ad facilem historiarum cognitionem' (quoted in Van Raemdonck 1869, p. 283, fn. 1), who wrote - "No less does Mercator slip up, who thinks that the Sun was in Leo when the universe was coming into existence."
Was that important or worrying? Yup, it was - and dangerous too!
For in those days the Church thought (and insisted) that the universe was young! Even hinting otherwise could get a person imprisoned, tortured or burnt alive at the stake.
[ Around 1654 Archbishop Ussher used genealogy of the Bible (all those `begats') to calculate that the World was created at nightfall preceding 23 October, 4004 BCE - so he was saying that the Earth was less than 6,000 years old. ]
Are we interested in that?
Well, yes. For Mercator is reported to have done a huge amount of research for the "Chronologia". As the story goes, he realized he was aging, and that map-making competition was increasing, so he wanted the "Atlas" & "Chronologia" to be his final masterpieces.
Mercator was said to have read everything he could get his hands on, from sources long unknown, or unused, by the Church.
Where did Mercator find a reference to the reawakening of `knowledge' or `civilization' after cataclysm? A suggestion that `the Universe came into existence' (again) in the Age of Leo?
That is, about 12 - 13,000 years ago!
[Also see `lost cities' - `undersea cities'
UPDATE 2008 - latest co-incidence: Tihuanaco (Bolivia) might also have been built around 12,500 years ago]
BTW2 - second temporary note:-
Had a link here to the archived webpages of Gloria Farley - see Amazon reference for `In Plain Sight: Old World Records in Ancient America' - sadly they have been allowed to lapse and disappear, maybe serving the interests of all those narrow-minded `experts' Gloria managed to offend by her discoveries of Norse (and Runic) and Egyptian (and more) archeological traces - inc. several coins - in North America.
Egyptian statuettes in ancient Mexico
Lost Australian Colonies of the Bronze Age
Egyptian or Egyptian inspired Gold artifacts from Burrows Cave
The Bat Creek Stone - Cherokee or Hebrew?
The Los Lunas Decalogue Stone
The Newark, Ohio Decalogue Stone and Keystone
The Calixtlahuaca Hellenistic-Roman Head
BTW3 - third temporary note:-
Some accumulating evidence for a world-wide catastrophe - about 4,200 years ago.
The `Dualism' featured up-top might be from the Zoroastrian ethic which seems to be the root of much ancient knowledge. Maybe see page on `Magi'.
`Dualism' is often called `the battle between good and evil' and seems rooted in the human psyche, where most of us experience warring motivations or impulses. Could also maybe extend that to some of the more `conscious' animals, as individuals.
On the other hand - human organizations, government ref-1, corporations, bureaucracies and even smaller groups, along with machines (computers maybe?), are incapable ref-2 of `good will' or `good intent' and are inevitably going to be used ref-3 for evil purposes much of the time, whether by accident or design.
WORKING HERE - info on Anatolia, Indus Valley, Northern India, Ancient China is being thought about.
1) `blind science' claims control of physics / medicine
suppressing truth:- today's science dogma is likely to be false;
2) police / politicos' use fear and greed - (`lizard-brain') - to divide people & nations
suppressing truth:- `authority' kills more of us;
3) media / corps force a sad chase for wealth & power
suppressing truth:- power & greed will strip the globe;
4) scientists arrogantly ignore anomalies
suppressing truth:- their ridicule hides ignorance & fear;
5) corporate media only push ignorant propaganda
suppressing truth:- politicos always want ignorance, then fear;
6) `authority' says "aliens don't exist" but also "aliens are the enemy"
suppressing truth:- rulers fear reality;
7) `security' claims "no abductions" - (but too many people going missing)
suppressing truth:- somebody's experimenting.
We'll try to trace events, more ancient than blinkered experts admit to, which may still be influencing human civilizations.
We may have to look back 13,000 years - or more than 26,000 years.
"Magic or Mass"
and maybe even
and its evidence file
compiling att. - feel free to send ideas / suggestions