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Copyright © 2012 Ray Dickenson
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"REASON  WHY"
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Greatest
Discoverers
of the Century


"Well into the twentieth century, astronomers believed that there was only one galaxy in the Cosmos, the Milky Way -"
Carl Sagan - `Cosmos'

They couldn't even measure the distance to a star!
Except by 'parallax'

Which only worked for the nearest stars.




Greatest Discovery # 1

Around 1910 astronomer Henrietta Leavitt was studying star-field photo plates.  She thought about certain 'blinking' stars - Cepheid variables - named after Delta Cephei, the first one found.

These particular stars were similar but varied a bit in `absolute magnitude' - their real brightness, and in their `blink rates'.

In 1912 Leavitt published.  She said the brightest Cepheids were blinking slow while the dimmer ones were fast; and this was a regular, graduated phenomenon.

So now the Cepheid's nearness can be calculated because, knowing its absolute magnitude or real brightness from its blink rate, we'll know that extra dimness is due to distance.

[ Not known then: Cepheid stars - ranging from "dwarf" to "giant" - happen to be at an age / size / density limit of stability, where gravity fights radiation / ionization and so varies total light output, making the star appear to `pulse'. ]

Importance

For the first time it was possible to estimate the distance of faraway stars.  Although establishment science still thought the Universe was the Milky Way, Henrietta Leavitt had discovered the way to look further.

Was credit given?

Not then - and hardly now.






Greatest Discovery # 2

Mount Wilson Observatory was built above the badlands of Pasadena and for many years all supplies went up by mule-train.  A poor but smart Pasadena mule-skinner, name of Milton Humason, took a job as janitor at the Observatory, maybe to feed himself between trips.

Milton was a quick learner and began assisting the high-class Astronomers.

The 'top brass' was Harlow Shapley - later Director at Harvard.

One day (c.1920) Milton brought to Shapley a photo-plate of the nebula in Andromeda (M31), which Shapley at that time thought of as a 'cloud of gas' inside the Milky Way, which he, like the rest of the science establishment, thought was the entire universe.

Humason had put arrows on the back of the plate - pointing to some small specks which he suggested were variable stars - Cepheids [ie - that the 'nebula' was beyond the limits of the Milky Way].

Shapley haughtily brushed off Milton's arrows, telling him the idea was "rubbish".

A year or so later, working for Hubble (the guy they named that Space Telescope for), Humason brought up the matter again.

Hubble checked (using Henrietta Leavitt's published key to the Cepheid variables) and found they were stars, were Cepheids and were at least 900,000 light years away.  About 10 × the size of the then-known Milky Way!
[More recently:- M31's "prodigious distance ... 2,000,000 light years" - Carl Sagan "Cosmos"]

Hubble published news of the breakthrough in Feb. 1924.  In advance he wrote of the results to Shapley, who remarked to a colleague, Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin, "Here is the letter that has destroyed my universe".

[In the 1700's Immanuel Kant had speculated on such extra-galactical structures, but was generally disbelieved. ]

Importance

For the first time, Milton Humason proved galaxies existed outside the Milky Way.
The M31 'nebula' was reclassified as a spiral galaxy.  The first we knew of outside our own!

Was credit given?

Not then - and hardly now.






Greatest Discovery # 3

Cecilia Payne's thesis of 1925, for the first Astronomy Ph.D ever awarded by Harvard, was under pressure from authority before it was even submitted.

Payne had completed studies at Cambridge (UK) but as a female was not allowed a degree, so she went to America.

A brilliant worker and student in Physics and Astronomy she was also denied a degree in Physics (because she was female) and turned instead to Astronomy.

However, her boss, Dr. Henry Norris Russell, insisted that her analysis of the spectrum of the Sun was incorrect.  Establishment opinion, including Norris Russell's, was that all stars consisted mainly of Iron!

Why? Because the Earth was.

Payne's more careful (and courageous) analysis said that Hydrogen was the major component of the Sun.

Shamefully Dr. Henry Norris Russell insisted that Cecilia write a P.S to her thesis: that her real results were "clearly untrue."

Even more shamefully, Norris Russell and his male confreres conspired to impede Payne's career when it eventually became clear that she had been right about the composition of stars.

The male establishment felt justified in sabotaging Cecilia's life because she was a) female; b) friendly with Jewish and Black students (America's elite, like all elites, was racist and sexist - then and now); and c) more efficient and gifted than they themselves were.

Importance

Even our own Sun was a mystery at that time.  Cecilia Payne revealed a basic truth about the processes of the Universe - leading to subsequent discoveries of `nuclear' actions.

Was credit given?

Not then - and hardly now.






Greatest Discovery # 4

EarIy in 1939 Lise Meitne, a Jewish girl from Vienna, published the first account of nuclear fission.

She was in Sweden, in exile, and had been guiding her fellow student and dearest friend Otto Hahn, a chemist who'd teamed up with the shy young Meitner when she was studying under Max Planck in Berlin.

Hahn, Lise's earliest studentship "friend", profited throughout his career from Lise's generous sharing of her genius.

[From readings it seems the pretty but shy young Lise had fallen in love with Hahn, a dashing character, and could never bring herself to break the ties of that sentiment, even after Hahn suddenly married an `Aryan' German girl and later even helped a nazi, Hess, to get Lise fired from the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute where they all worked, in line with Hitler's anti-Jewish policies.]

Forced to leave Germany, Lise Meitner was still guiding Hahn by `remote control' by letter from Sweden.  She'd recommended bombarding uranium with neutrons, furthering the experiments of Fermi in Rome.

When Hahn and his colleagues were perplexed by unexplained transmutations after the experiment, Lise, with her nephew Robert Frisch, worked out that the residue was the result of low-level splitting of uranium atoms: nuclear fission.

[ Hahn had thought that neutrons hitting uranium atoms might result in heavier metals as a residue.  However Lise was familiar with Einstein's formula `E=m.c2' and realized that the lighter stuff found by Hahn had actually been transmuted by a "nuclear" process.  I.e. an action taking place within the nucleus of an atom, hitherto thought to be indivisible. ]

Importance

Although kept secret from us ordinary people, this was revolutionary.

It showed that not only were there huge energies available from "fission" but the energy could be produced either slowly and gradually, for industrial purposes or, as was later ascertained, quasi-instantaneously, for use as a weapon - a bomb.

Guess who got the Nobel?

Yes - the man!

Was credit given?

Not then - and hardly now.






Greatest Discovery # 5

Alice Stewart had to run gauntlets of hostile male professors and aggressive male students before qualifying at Girton College, Cambridge.  However she was soon first woman member of the Association of Physicians and youngest fellow of the Royal College of Physicians.

During WWII her brilliant work for the Medical Research Council helped establish the Oxford Survey as source of valuable and controversial data.

She investigated effects of exposure to TNT, to carbon tetrachloride, and then, post 1945, the connection between childhood leukemia and mothers' exposure to x-rays.  All of her - truthful - results were bitterly opposed by powerful vested interests; i.e. by many of the establishment's physicists and radiobiologists and most strongly by the corrupt International Commission for Radiation Protection. (ICRP)

In the USA she was invited by Professor T.F Mancuso to help with the Hanford Survey of safety issues around plutonium production.  Her results - revealing 10 times the cancer incidence predicted - infuriated the US Gov't, which immediately fired Prof Mancuso, suppressed the original report and banned future use of independent consultants.

Fighting on, using data from Oxford & Hanford Surveys, Alice Stewart showed that the ICRP regulations were inadequate, by proving that adult sensitivity to radiation was also ten times higher than the ICRP pretended.

The British Government, always corrupt (bureaucrats' & politicos' normal state), cut off all funds for her research and attacked her whenever possible.  However by this time she was being supported by grants from N American institutions.

Importance

Alice Stewart's struggles to get minimal safety standards were continually attacked by greedy and murderous gov'ts and arrogant, corrupt male scientists.
Check - '04 `Risks need revising', and '09 `IAEA still gagging the truth'

"Between 1945 and 1980, the United States, U.S.S.R, United Kingdom, France and China exploded 504 nuclear devices ... These nuclear tests infused vast quantities of radioactive material into the world's atmosphere, which was widely dispersed and then deposited as global fallout." [Wiki]

"The injured of Chernobyl are today, years after the catastrophe, not even born yet" [around the world].  Ulrich Beck

"We have already doubled the level of background radiation today.  What is the effect on human genes?  That is the really important question: it won't show up for two or three more generations."  Alice Stewart

Was credit given?

Not then - and hardly now.






Greatest Discovery # 6

Chien-Shiung Wu - born in Shanghai and trained at Nanking National University - moved to USA where she taught at Smith & Princeton before research at Columbia.  She championed woman's right to femininity and freedom of thought, fighting pressures to be merely the `attractive female' on campus.  She was "openly critical of male chauvinism in science".

In 1956 she decided to test the "Law of Conservation of Parity" that claimed "universal forces are not aware of "left / right" or "positive / negative charge" or "N / S magnetic polarity"

[Most male-dominated quantum physicists supported the "Law of Parity" - Richard P Feynman made a $50 bet that Parity would be conserved.]

Chien-Shiung Wu tested it in low-energy electron movements - not dominated by strong outside influences and micro/macro threshold forces.  A cobalt variety will leak electrons under certain conditions and Chien-Shiung Wu proved that these charged "particles" were repelled only by the South pole of a magnet.

Importance

For the first time we knew that electromagnetic states - both building blocks and supporting forces of material Universe - actually slope from "left - right" and from "positive - negative" and from "N - S".

[ Not known att - to be ingredient in UEF Theory ]

The science elite - forced to recognize overthrow of "Parity Laws" - chose to give Nobel prize, not to Chien-Shiung Wu, but to T-D Lee and C.N Yang, male physicists who'd speculated on the possibility without coming to firm conclusions.

Was credit given?

Not then - and hardly now.






Greatest Discovery # 7

Vera Rubin's independence was disapproved of by the Church and, because she was a woman, she was not allowed into offices of the Applied Physics Laboratory when George Gamow invited her to visit.  The elite's sexist chauvinism forced Rubin and Gamow to conference in the lobby.

Despite this she decided to study the movements of galaxies and in 1970, with Kent Ford, she began to look at Andromeda's M31, our nearest big neighbour.

The spiralling galactic disks should have been moving fast at the center and much slower towards the rim (like in a whirlpool).  But that wasn't happening!

Rubin's discovery meant that either `gravity' was misbehaving at the large scale of the galaxy, or maybe the real galaxy extended much further out and was made of supposed 'dark matter' that did not radiate light.

If so, then Rubin had (apparently) found something the establishment didn't know needed to exist - Dark matter.

[ From the data she also concluded that our local galaxies were being drawn towards Pegasus - this was also derided by the establishment.  It was finally confirmed - by  male astronomers - only about 20 years later. ]

Importance

For the first time scientists were able to realize invisible materials and forces existed in the Universe.  And that these were probably the major influence in the Universe.

Was credit given?

Not then - and hardly now.






Greatest Discovery # 8

1973 - Beatrice Tinsley wrote a paper [Gott, Gunn, Schramm, Tinsley - Astrophysical Journal 1974] in which she and her colleagues analysed the cosmic data.

The establishment's preferred view was of a 'closed' universe - doomed to collapse.  That suited both the Churches and the science / social Elite.

Astronomers of the day were forcing their data to support the 'closed' Universe idea.  They classified stars in giant elliptical galaxies as young, hydrogen-fed stars, so as to make their age and distance fit a short-term 'doomed' Universe.

Tinsley challenged this; she said they were red giants and therefore older.  Some years later (1974) Jay Frogel - astronomer of Ohio State - determined their infra-red signatures.  They were red giants.

But before that happened Tinsley and her team sought the density parameter of all the matter in the Universe - a figure called Omega.  If it was greater than 1, the Universe would eventually collapse - a Big Crunch.

But if Omega is less than 1, the Universe is open and will expand forever - the Long Journey.

The four colleagues analysed the three available attributes of the Universe:-

a) checking the brightness of the Universe: Omega = 0.01 (low, supposedly because some matter is 'dark'];

b) checking the 'gravitational' movement of the Universe: Omega = 0.1;

c) checking the deuterium content of the Universe compared to normal hydrogen.

Deuterium = transition stage between hydrogen and helium.  Supposedly created in a putative `Big Bang', it's taken as an accurate indicator of early density.  If deuterium had been scarce - (less than 1 : 1,000,000 or so) - the Universe might've been dense and 'closed'.

In 1973 the Copernicus satellite measured absorption lines in interstellar light (so showing make-up of matter `in-between').  Deuterium was at least 1 : 50,000, and therefore Omega = 0.1

But it took a while for Tinsley to find a journal to accept their paper.  The establishment's "Nature" refused it, saying it was "inappropriate" - Ha!

It seems the establishment's propaganda need for a doomed universe is still too strong.

Importance

The Universe is a one-off.  And it is 'open' - probably expanding forever.

We travel the Long Journey

Update!
Finally the establishment - NASA, media etc - have had facts forced down their throats.  Check "humble pie".


Was credit given?

Not then - and hardly now.






Greatest Discovery # 9

1996-7 - We modestly suggest : "the UEF Theory".

Uniting the so-called "Forces" - not by tortuous mathematical trickery [GUTs - quantum magic etc] but by an economical, rational replacement of the whole sorry mess.

Bringing promise of an inexhaustible energy source, enabling f.t.l communication and propulsion and the necessary protection for f.t.l transport; maybe even ensuring we can survive the eventual death of our Sun.

Importance

From our warnings (of September 2000), the UEF theory forecast the existence of the problem of flight-trauma, and immediately began saving thousands of lives each year, often of women and their unborn babies.

Scientists writing after 2000* will, in future, be seen as cowardly or just plain silly if clinging to superstitions of magic `forces' - nuclear, gravitational & electromagnetic, or more magical quantum `exchanges'.

2000* - UEF papers were first circulated to selected scientists in 1996 but have only been made widely available more recently.

Was credit given?

Check your newspaper.  Establishment's dislike of the news can be seen by the UK's gov't science & technology department['NESTA'] and the BBC's efforts to suppress the data.

Discoverer flunks `establishment' test for real credit.





from
"VERITIES"
". . . the very fact that an idea is 'elegant,'
in the scientific sense of being a beautifully simple, clear solution to a problem,
makes it acutely uncomfortable to those who have been working in the field"
JOHN W. CAMPBELL, JR
WHY




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