All species make 'choices' 6 of evolutionary direction. We can see, from the fossil genetic record of whales and dolphins say, that animals' choices drive genetic change 6a and not vice versa as some academics claim. Choices cannot be said to be conscious or considered, yet they are outcomes of many individual organisms' actions.
To be more precise:- The `wishes' or `desires' of organisms, no matter how primitive they may be, initiate an evolutionary step, or change of direction: DNA has no part to play in that, since DNA is blind and without volition. Only thereafter can genetic mutations, over time, catch-up with those organisms' `decisions', by accidentally better fitting them for their chosen activities or roles.
Causality (effects following causes) being what it is - a fortuitous change in DNA can only be confirmed and preserved if it is advantageous (or harmless) for the organisms at that time. 6A
Evolutionary 'choice' is essentially irreversible, although some beneficial options may be revisited via another route, but at a cost - like the Panda's `thumb'. Because the individual actions of evolution have no long-term objectives and no memory.
1 - Some `choices' - specialization and sexual selection are just two - can result in a species being painted into an evolutionary corner: into eventual extinction.
2 - At any stage a species may choose to become socially organized, giving increased survival chances. For instance ants and bees chose to be co-operative, but tigers and most other big cats - except lions 60 - did not. There are many ants 61 and bees 62 now - but very few tigers.
Specialization & Sexual Selection
We see the results of specialization all around:-
A spiny ant-eater say, can't easily climb out of that niche. Neither can a tiger, nor a rhinoceros.
So these, and all other specialized animals, are at risk of extinction by any relatively small environmental change.
Also visible are the dangers of sexual selection:-
A long time ago, a peahen selected a peacock by what was initially a sign of health: strong and colorful displays of tail feathers.
But undiluted sexual preference will spiral, leading to exaggerated ornamentation, as in the peacock and in other animals: birds-of-paradise etc.
Result: The over-ornamented male is less able to compete in the wild - eventually only surviving for a while in isolated areas, or under `domestic' protection.
We chose co-operation a long time ago and cannot revert. Personally, am glad we didn't begin too early - as ants maybe did - to let us develop our individualism. 63
But many rulers and elites have imposed `insect' systems on humans, by slavery, by forced selective breeding, by limiting children to the occupations of their parents and by many other unfair class, caste, racial or fiscal methods. 64 & 65 & 66 & 604A
History says the result is continual extinction of `elites' - continued survival of the `slaves'. 67
We now co-operate day and night 63 because a lone human cannot make a light-bulb much less a railway or a national power grid.
"About two-thirds of the mass of the human brain is in the cerebral cortex, devoted to intuition and reason. Humans have evolved gregariously. We delight in each other's company; we care for one another. We cooperate. Altruism is built into us"
writing in `Cosmos'
(2011) - Review of neuroscience's discovery: the human brain appreciates beauty and altruism equally, and with the same `circuitry'.
BRAIN INTERSECTIONS OF AESTHETICS AND MORALS
(2013) - `The Spirit Level: Why Greater Equality Makes Societies Stronger'
by Kate Pickett and Richard Wilkinson
Now, and maybe not for the first time, 64 we can see more clearly where we've come from, the mistakes we've made and are still making, 65 and what we might have to do to make survival even possible.
History and `law of diminishing returns' says that flawed / corrupt systems will collapse.
[ UPDATES - 2014 - confirmation by scientific analysis - and - confirmation by economic analysis]
Omens? When elites fail to do military service, insulate themselves from taxation (and fair competition), then hide in defensive enclaves for the rich - all of which we see in UK c. 2000.
Along with Richard Buckminster Fuller and many others (search - GRUNCH / LAWCAP / MMAO), we foresee the end of a crude and corrupt system of `property-elites', elite run `nation-States', rigged `markets' and fake `tax debts' - which enforce corruption and slavery 67 creating inevitable crises & 68 crashes.
England's taxes and law courts 69 are immensely wasteful and 600 regressive. But UK media - mostly owned by rich non-taxpayers or, in the case of the BBC, governed by them - are motivated to conceal this. 601 & 602
Average citizens pay hugely more tax than necessary.
A single, fair and economic `flat tax' of just 20% (or even 10%) would actually raise more money for gov't services than the 60% to 70% and more (a largely hidden tax-burden) now paid by working people in accumulating tax costs [P.A.Y.E + N.I x 2 + VAT + Council Tax].
Why? and How? Simple - A flat tax costs virtually nothing to collect and also has no corrupt and expensive allowances to allow the political classses and the rich to escape taxation.
But just now the very rich 602A refuse to pay even a 10% tax-burden - and the very rich control our government, local and national.
So - at the moment, merely to enrich stupidly selfish elites, corrupt gov't/authority oppresses, impoverishes and stifles the lives of all ordinary folk in UK.
UK's rail system is paid for - through tax subsidy - by the lower-incomed and the poor but can only be freely used by the rich - who do not pay net taxes. 603
Additional charges (fares) are inflicted to prevent the poor from using the system that they have already paid for. Those fares cost a great deal to calculate and collect, much of the cost of some operations. You can see the whole thing is criminally unfair, and wasteful on a lunatic scale.
No less criminal is making ordinary people pay - by tax subsidy - for the gas-guzzling limos of the rich: claimed as "business expenses".
We, the ordinary population, already pay for all road-building and we also pay - through even more tax-subsidy - for half of all new cars bought in the UK:- the "fleet cars" and the executives' `Rollers'.
Similarly the poorer tax-payer - not the `business' - pays for all junk-mail via business tax-allowances and also by increased postal charges.
More recently, small Post Offices, local bus services, and now Libraries, which the rich don't use or need, are being closed down country-wide, although they are vitally needed by the non-rich (who pay all net-taxes).
A sensible (and moral) administration would make all personal transport, small postage, and self-education facilities - already paid-for by taxes - free at use; that's fairer and will save a huge amount which is wasted today.
UK's "National Health System" has also been corrupted, becoming cruel, divisive and murderous. 604 & 604A & 605
People who've paid life-time taxes are now deprived of promised eye and dental care 606 - unless they're so poor they qualify for the sub-standard and corrupt "pauper's NHS". 606a
[BTW - 80% - 90% of cesareans, induced child-births, are an unnecessary and criminal risk inflicted by greedy `doctors' - but not inflicted on the rich.]
Same for UK's "education system" - paid for by working population but with most prestigious qualifications awarded to the (stupid) rich. 607
"Private" education - for the rich - is then secretly subsidized from taxes under UK's corrupt "charity" laws. 608
Demanding fees or `contributions' (or a penalty, like school-uniforms), to use a tax-subsidised education service, is oppression and exclusion of ordinary people, who pay the highest tax rates.
Such charging, routine in UK, is unjust, cruel and pervert.
[Re: `pervert' - UK has high percentage of abusive `landed-gentry', officials, judiciary and police now being revealed as pedophiles and other sex-bullies - but mainly concealed by authority. 609]
You can see the UK's `welfare state' is actually a system whereby elites steal from working folk oppressed and enslaved by pervert 610 judiciary, corrupt 603 bureaucrats, and bent (thugs for the rich) police. 611
So about 50% of UK's fuel and energy resources and humans' effort is squandered in the contriving of fake and unfair tax-burden -
- vast amounts being wasted in cost of collection, by greedy incompetent bureaucrats, much else being secretly transferred to 603 to elites -
- all enforced by pervert judiciary, corrupt taxmen and thug police; each of whose leaders, along with `front-men' politicians, is selected for corruption (ie. pervs) - not for competence, and definitely not for integrity. 604 & 604A
Result? - UK has the most inefficient, class-ridden, wasteful and incompetent systems - from police through education 612 and Health services, through government itself - of all western counties, 612a & 613 closely followed by the USA, whose situation is similar. 614 & 615
Incompetence, abuse and corruption only exist because, rather than aiming to be useful to ordinary folk, most gov'ts exist to serve greedy elites.
Least corrupt? Maybe New Zealand, Scandinavia, Netherlands. 616
As `Bucky' approx. said - "eventually, and soon, a more enlightened world population will see the waste, corruption and vice inherent in the present system of elites' property, 617 elite-run fake `nations', 618 fake markets, fake laws and courts, fake tax-slavery 619 & debt-slavery 65
Most likely forecast - that, as we become aware of the lethal self-damage of `dirty money' and `dirty power', people world-wide will react against corrupt authority-grabbers and power-elites - world-wide.
However, transition will not be easy.
`Power-elites' are self-deluders, and their enforcers (police & pervert officials) are similarly propagandised. Such fantasists will behave badly - and murderously - when reality offends them.
[ Whenever a power-elite claims a `problem' will be solved "once and for all" or that they have a "final solution" - they really mean they're going to oppress, torture or kill a whole lot of people, in the hope that the shock / trauma 620 will suppress any movement for fairness, or even for efficiency.]
Ruling elites and their minions will almost surely lash out in pre-emptive efforts to retain secrecy, power and wealth.
There may be slaughter in the streets - in `civilized' and `un-civilized' places alike.
|"Before the curing of a strong disease,|
Even in the instant of repair and health,
The fit is strongest; evils that take leave,
On their departure most of all show evil"
- King John, Act III
However, education and the free spread of information cannot be suppressed for ever.
There is a visible, inevitable goal.
Where schooling, taxation and justice are more equal and fair, traditionally most like in Netherlands & Scandinavian countries, folk are better educated and more sensible, more moderate consumers and more eco-friendly, and, above all - more peaceful.
Those who still abuse co-operation want to rule by duplicity or tyranny. 621
However their numbers fall consistently throughout history. 622
They now tend to appear as top bureaucrats, 623 bankers, politicians, police and security-chiefs, or media moguls 624 - i.e. as greedy & monopolistic gangsters. 67
As power perverts 625 of some sort.
In evolutionary terms - they move to extinction. 626 & 627